[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dengue has affected Iquitos since 1990 causing outbreaks of major impact on public health and for this reason great efforts have been made for its temporal control. Currently, with the expansion of the chikungunya virus in the Americas and the threat of the emergence of the virus in Iquitos, we reflect on lessons learned by way of the activities undertaken in the area of vector control; epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis and clinical management during periods of outbreaks of dengue, in a way that will allow us to better face the threat of an outbreak of chikungunya virus in the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon.
Revista peruana de medicina experimental y salud publica 03/2015; 32(1):172-178.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.
International journal of hygiene and environmental health 08/2011; 215(1):59-63. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2011.07.003 · 3.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data addressing the incidence and epidemiology of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) in tropical regions of the world is scarce, particularly for the neotropics of South America.
We conducted active, population-based surveillance for ILI across 45 city blocks within the Amazon Basin city of Iquitos, Peru. Demographic data and household characteristics were collected for all participants, and participating households were visited three times weekly to inquire about ILI (fever plus cough or sore throat) among household residents. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs were collected from participants with ILI and tested for influenza virus infection.
Between May 1, 2008 and July 8, 2009, we monitored 10,341 participants for ILI for a total of 11,569.5 person-years. We detected 459 ILI episodes, with 252 (54.9%) of the participants providing specimens. Age-adjusted incidence of ILI was estimated to be 46.7 episodes/1000 person-years. Influenza A and B viruses were detected in 25 (9.9%) and 62 (24.6%) specimens of ILI patients, respectively, for an estimated age-adjusted incidence rate of 16.5 symptomatic influenza virus infections/1000 person-years. Risk factors for ILI included age, household crowding, and use of wood as cooking fuel. For influenza virus infection specifically, age and use of wood as a cooking fuel were also identified as risk factors, but no effect of household crowding was observed.
Our results represent the initial population-based description of the epidemiology of ILI in the Amazon region of Peru, which will be useful for developing region-specific strategies for reducing the burden of respiratory disease.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 07/2010; 4(4):235-43. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2010.00139.x · 2.20 Impact Factor