[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coumarin derivative 1, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-1-butyryl)-4-phenyl-chromen- 2-one, has been reported to possess radical scavenging activity and DNA protection. We have synthesized a series of coumarins with structural modifications at positions C4, C5, C6 and C7 and evaluated them for their anti-UVC properties. Coumarin 7, 6-benzoyl-5,6-dihydroxy-4-phenyl-chromen-2-one, was found to have the most potent activity in protecting porcine γ-crystallin against UVC insults. Results of fluorescence assays indicated that compound 7 was capable of decreasing the loss of intensity while lens crystallins and DNA PUC19 were irradiated with UVC. Presence of compound 7 decreased hydroxyl radical levels determined by probe 1b and the free iron concentrations determined by Ferrozine reagent. The chelation assay showed that compound 7 was chelated to metal via 6-CO and 5-OH on the benzopyrone ring. The observed protective effects of compound 7 towards crystallins from insults of UVC and free radicals may be due to its iron-chelating activity and its peak absorption at 254 nm.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2011; 12(10):7059-76. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the biochemical pharmacology of pirenoxine (PRX) and catalin under in vitro selenite/calcium- and ultraviolet (UV)-induced lens protein turbidity challenges. The systemic effects of catalin were determined using a selenite-induced cataractogenesis rat model.
In vitro cataractogenesis assay systems (including UVB/C photo-oxidation of lens crystallins, calpain-induced proteolysis, and selenite/calcium-induced turbidity of lens crystallin solutions) were used to screen the activity of PRX and catalin eye drop solutions. Turbidity was identified as the optical density measured using spectroscopy at 405 nm. We also determined the in vivo effects of catalin on cataract severity in a selenite-induced cataract rat model. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied to analyze the integrity of crystallin samples.
PRX at 1,000 μM significantly delayed UVC-induced turbidity formation compared to controls after 4 h of UVC exposure (p<0.05), but not in groups incubated with PRX concentrations of <1,000 μM. Results were further confirmed by SDS-PAGE. The absolute γ-crystallin turbidity induced by 4 h of UVC exposure was ameliorated in the presence of catalin equivalent to 1~100 μM PRX in a concentration-dependent manner. Samples with catalin-formulated vehicle only (CataV) and those containing PRX equivalent to 100 μM had a similar protective effect after 4 h of UVC exposure compared to the controls (p<0.05). PRX at 0.03, 0.1, and 0.3 μM significantly delayed 10 mM selenite- and calcium-induced turbidity formation compared to controls on days 0~4 (p<0.05). Catalin (equivalent to 32, 80, and 100 μM PRX) had an initial protective effect against selenite-induced lens protein turbidity on day 1 (p<0.05). Subcutaneous pretreatment with catalin (5 mg/kg) also statistically decreased the mean cataract scores in selenite-induced cataract rats on post-induction day 3 compared to the controls (1.3±0.2 versus 2.4±0.4; p<0.05). However, catalin (equivalent to up to 100 μM PRX) did not inhibit calpain-induced proteolysis activated by calcium, and neither did 100 μM PRX.
PRX at micromolar levels ameliorated selenite- and calcium-induced lens protein turbidity but required millimolar levels to protect against UVC irradiation. The observed inhibition of UVC-induced turbidity of lens crystallins by catalin at micromolar concentrations may have been a result of the catalin-formulated vehicle. Transient protection by catalin against selenite-induced turbidity of crystallin solutions in vitro was supported by the ameliorated cataract scores in the early stage of cataractogenesis in vivo by subcutaneously administered catalin. PRX could not inhibit calpain-induced proteolysis activated by calcium or catalin itself, and may be detrimental to crystallins under UVB exposure. Further studies on formulation modifications of catalin and recommended doses of PRX to optimize clinical efficacy by cataract type are warranted.