[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of using a prophylactic surgical site closed suction drain in pterional craniotomy.
Materials and methods:
A retrospective review was conducted on 607 consecutive patients who underwent a pterional craniotomy for treatment of intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms over a 5-year period. Between January 2000 and December 2004, 607 patients were divided into two groups, those who had a prophylactic suction drain during closure of the surgical site (drain group, DG) and those who did not (non-drain group, NDG). Head computed tomography (CT) was taken routinely on postoperative day (POD) 1, 7, and 14. Patients' demographics, incidence of surgical site complications, and courses of surgical site healing which were evaluated radiologically by the thickness of the surgical site myocutaneous layer, were analyzed between DG and NDG.
Patients' demographics and characteristics did not differ significantly between the two groups. The head CT showed that the degree of changes in the postoperative surgical site thickness was 148% at POD 1, 209% at POD 7, and 198% at POD 14 in DG, and 118% at POD 1, 152% at POD 7, and 158% at POD 14 in NDG compared to the preoperative value. Postoperative surgical site hematoma was 7.9% (22/274) in DG and 2.4% (8/333) in NDG.
Prophylactic use of an epidural and/or subgaleal closed suction drain does not appear to be necessary for prevention of postoperative surgical site hematoma as well as for promotion of surgical site healing in pterional craniotomy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether prenatal exposure to indoor fine particulate matter (PM₂.₅) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects susceptibility to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in infancy, to compare their effects between prenatal and postnatal exposure, and to determine whether genetic factors modify these environmental effects.
The study population consisted of 307 birth cohort infants. A diagnosis of RTIs was based on parental report of a physician's diagnosis. Indoor PM₂.₅ and ETS levels were measured during pregnancy and infancy. TaqMan was used for genotyping of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) (rs6726395), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GSTP) 1 (rs1695), and glutathione-S-transferase-mu (GSTM) 1. Microarrays were used for genome-wide methylation analysis.
Prenatal exposure to indoor PM₂.₅ increased the susceptibility of lower RTIs (LRTIs) in infancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.11). In terms of combined exposure to both indoor PM₂.₅ and ETS, prenatal exposure to both pollutants increased susceptibility to LRTIs (aOR=6.56); however, this association was not found for postnatal exposure. The Nrf2 GG (aOR=23.69), GSTM1 null (aOR=8.18), and GSTP1 AG or GG (aOR=7.37) genotypes increased the combined LRTIs-promoting effects of prenatal exposure to the 2 indoor pollutants. Such effects of prenatal indoor PM₂.₅ and ETS exposure were not found for upper RTIs.
Prenatal exposure to both indoor PM₂.₅ and ETS may increase susceptibility to LRTIs. This effect can be modified by polymorphisms in reactive oxygen species-related genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The aim of this study was to predict the relationship between the symptomatic disc herniation level and the osteophyte level or decreased disc height in patients with cervical disc herniation.
Between January 2011 and December 2012, 69 patients with an osteophyte of the cervical spine underwent surgery at a single center due to soft cervical disc herniation. Data including soft disc herniation level, osteophyte level in the posterior vertebral margin, Cobb's angle, and symptom duration were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the relationship between the degenerative change level and the level of reported symptoms.
Among the 69 patients, 48 (69.6%) showed a match between osteophyte level and soft disc herniation level. Disc herniation occurred at the adjacent segment to degenerative osteophyte level in 12 patients (17.4%) and at both the adjacent and the osteophyte level in nine (13.0%). There was no significant difference in Cobb's angle or duration among the three groups. Osteophyte type was not significant. The mean disc height of the prominent degenerative change level group was lower than the adjacent segment level, but this was not significant.
Soft cervical disc herniation usually occurs at the level an osteophyte forms. However, it may also occur at segments adjacent to that of the osteophyte level. Therefore, in patients with cervical disc herniation, although a prominent osteophyte alone may appear on plain radiography, we must suspect the presence of soft disc herniation at other levels.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a known marker of airway inflammation. The aims of this study were to evaluate FeNO, impulse oscillometry (IOS), and spirometry in preschool children and to investigate their relationship with wheeze and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR).
We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study with 561 children aged 5-6 years. A total of 544 children completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and eligible for the study. We measured FeNO, spirometry, methacholine bronchial provocation, and IOS. AHR was defined as the induction of a 20% decrease in FEV1(PC20) by a methacholine concentration ≤8.0 mg/dL.
Children who had wheeze or AHR had higher FeNO levels than children without these symptoms. However, neither IOS nor spirometry parameters showed significant differences between children with wheeze or AHR and those without. FeNO was associated with AHR, whereas IOS or spirometry parameters showed no association. Mean FeNO levels were positively correlated with a dose-response slope for methacholine, but neither IOS nor spirometry parameters showed significant correlations.
FeNO is a more sensitive measurement of AHR and wheeze than spirometry or IOS in preschool children.
Journal of Asthma 08/2015; DOI:10.3109/02770903.2015.1046078 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anoctamin 6 (ANO6) is a member of the recently identified TMEM16/anoctamin protein family comprising Ca2+-activated Cl− channels that generate outward-rectifying ionic currents in response to intracellular Ca2+ increase. ANO6 is also essential for Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scrambling required for blood coagulation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)—fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine—that are used for the treatment of major depressive disorders can increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after chronic treatment. However, at the earlier stage of intake, which is 1–7 days after the treatment, the possibility of blood coagulation might also increase, but transiently. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether therapeutic SSRI concentrations affected the Cl− current or phospholipid scrambling activity of ANO6 by assessing ANO6 currents (I
ANO6), phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, and platelet aggregation. In the whole-cell patch mode, SSRIs facilitated Ca2+-dependent activation of IANO6 in ANO6-transfected cells, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the delay of IANO6 generation. On the other hand, in the inside-out patch clamp configuration, SSRIs showed an inhibitory effect on ANO6 currents, suggesting that SSRIs activate ANO6 via an indirect mechanism in intact cells. SSRIs also facilitated Ca2+-dependent PS exposure and α-thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. These results indicate that SSRIs at clinically relevant concentrations promote Ca2+-dependent activation of ANO6, which may have potential clinical implications such as the underlying mechanism of SSRI-induced adverse drug reactions.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 01/2015; 467(11). DOI:10.1007/s00424-015-1692-6 · 4.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reversible airway obstruction. Methacholine (MCh) is widely used in broncho-provocation test to evaluate airway resistance. For experimental investigation, ovalbumin-induced sensitization is frequently used in rodents (Ova-asthma). However, albeit the inflammatory histology and AHR in vivo, it remains unclear whether the MCh sensitivity of airway smooth muscle isolated from Ova-asthma is persistently changed. In this study, the contractions of airways in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from control, Ova-asthma, and IL-13 overexpressed transgenic mice (IL-13TG) were compared by analyzing the airway lumen space (AW). The airway resistance in vivo was measured using plethysmograph. AHR and increased inflammatory cells in BAL fluid were confirmed in Ova-asthma and IL-13TG mice. In the PCLS from all three groups, MCh concentration-dependent narrowing of airway lumen (ΔAW) was observed. In contrast to the AHR in vivo, the EC50 of MCh for ΔAW from Ova-asthma and IL-13TG were not different from control, indicating unchanged sensitivity to MCh. Although the AW recovery upon MCh-washout showed sluggish tendency in Ova-asthma, the change was also statistically insignificant. Membrane depolarization-induced ΔAW by 60 mM K(+) (60K-contraction) was larger in IL-13TG than control, whereas 60K-contraction of Ova-asthma was unaffected. Furthermore, serotonin-induced ΔAW of Ova-asthma was smaller than control and IL-13TG. Taken together, the AHR in Ova-asthma and IL-13TG are not reflected in the contractility of isolated airways from PCLS. The AHR of the model animals seems to require intrinsic agonists or inflammatory microenvironment that is washable during tissue preparation.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 01/2015; 19(1):65-71. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2015.19.1.65 · 1.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a biologic mediator of various physiologic functions. Recent evidence suggests the clinical utility of fractional exhaled NO (FeNO) as a biomarker for assessing asthma and other respiratory diseases. FeNO methodologies have been recently standardized by international research groups and subsequently validated in several Korean population studies. Normal ranges for FeNO have been reported for various ethnic groups, and the clinical utility has been widely evaluated in asthma and various respiratory diseases. Based on current evidence including most of Korean population data, this position paper aims to introduce the methodological considerations, and provide the guidance for the proper clinical application of FeNO measurements in Korean populations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The general consensus is that immune cells are exposed to physiological hypoxia in vivo (PhyO2, 2-5% PO2). However, functional studies of B cells in hypoxic conditions are sparse. Recently, we reported the expression in mouse B cells of TASK-2, a member of pH-sensitive two-pore domain K(+) channels with background activity. In this study, we investigated the response of K(+) channels to sustained PhyO2 (sustained hypoxia [SH], 3% PO2 for 24 h) in WEHI-231 mouse B cells. SH induced voltage-independent background K(+) conductance (SH-Kbg) and hyperpolarized the membrane potential. The pH sensitivity and the single-channel conductance of SH-Kbg were consistent with those of TASK-2. Immunoblotting assay results showed that SH significantly increased plasma membrane expressions of TASK-2. Conversely, SH failed to induce any current following small interfering (si)TASK-2 transfection. Similar hypoxic upregulation of TASK-2 was also observed in splenic primary B cells. Mechanistically, upregulation of TASK-2 by SH was prevented by si hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) transfection or by YC-1, a pharmacological HIF-1α inhibitor. In addition, TASK-2 current was increased in WEHI-231 cells overexpressed with O2-resistant HIF-1α. Importantly, [Ca(2+)]c increment in response to BCR stimulation was significantly higher in SH-exposed B cells, which was abolished by high K(+)-induced depolarization or by siTASK-2 transfection. The data demonstrate that TASK-2 is upregulated under hypoxia via HIF-1α-dependent manner in B cells. This is functionally important in maintaining the negative membrane potential and providing electrical driving force to control Ca(2+) influx.
The Journal of Immunology 10/2014; 193(10). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301829 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contractile response of a pulmonary artery (PA) to hypoxia (hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction; HPV) is a unique physiological reaction. HPV is beneficial for the optimal distribution of blood flow to differentially ventilated alveolar regions in the lung, thereby preventing systemic hypoxemia. Numerous in vitro studies have been conducted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying HPV. These studies indicate that PA smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) sense O2 pressure (PO2) and contract under hypoxia. As for the PO2-sensing molecules, a variety of ion channels in PASMCs have been suggested. Nonetheless, the modulator(s) of the ion channels alone cannot mimic HPV in the experiments using PA segments and/or isolated organs. We compared the hypoxic responses of PASMCs, PAs, lung slices, and total lungs using a variety of methods (patch clamp technique, isometric-contraction measurement, video analysis of precision-cut lung slices, and PA pressure measurement in ventilated/perfused lungs). In this review, the relevant results are compared to provide a comprehensive understanding of HPV. Integration of the influences from surrounding tissues including blood cells as well as the hypoxic regulation of ion channels in PASMCs are indispensable for insights into HPV and other related clinical conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The relationship between exposure to indoor environmental pollutants and incidence of asthma and wheezing illness in children is unclear. This study aimed to clarify this relationship by identifying the risk factors associated with these conditions in South Korean children aged 6-7 years.
The parents or guardians of 3810 children aged 6-7 years who had participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and met the study criteria completed validated questionnaires regarding their children's asthma and wheezing illness, risk factors and exposure to indoor pollutants. The data were subjected to chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the factors significantly associated with asthma and wheezing illness.
Parental history of allergic disease (odds ratio [OR]: 1.729; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.447-2.066), living on the basement or semi-basement floor (OR: 1.891; 95% CI: 1.194-2.996) and living in housing that had been remodeled within the last 12 months (OR: 1.376; 95% CI: 1.101-1.720) were found to be significantly associated with wheezing illness. Parental history of allergic disease (OR: 2.189; 95% CI: 1.483-3.231), male sex (OR: 1.971; 95% CI: 1.369-2.838) and positive skin prick test (SPT) result (OR: 1.583; 95% CI: 1.804-3.698) were found to be significantly associated with current asthma.
Although the risk factors for current asthma appear to be more related to the non-modifiable risk factors like sex, parental history of allergic diseases, SPT, the two groups are associated with exposure to modifiable indoor environmental factors.
Journal of Asthma 07/2014; 51(9). DOI:10.3109/02770903.2014.930879 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation. While FeNO measurement has been standardized, reference values for elementary school children are scarce. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for FeNO in children.
FeNO was measured in elementary school children at 6-12 years of age in Seoul, Korea, following American Thoracic Society guidelines and using a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden). A total of 1,252 children completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire; FeNO was measured in 1,063 children according to the protocol and in 808 children defined as healthy controls.
Mean FeNO were 10.32 ppb, 16.58 ppb, and 12.36 ppb in non-atopic, atopic, and all 808 healthy controls, respectively. FeNO was not associated with age and gender. The FeNO reference equations were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account the variables of age, height, weight, total IgE, eosinophil percent, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (methacholine PC20). FeNO=0.776+0.003×total IgE+0.340×eosinophil percent; coefficient of determination (R2)=0.084 in the 501 healthy non-atopic controls. FeNO=-18.365+1.536×eosinophil percent, R2=0.183 in the 307 healthy atopic controls; and FeNO=-7.888+0.130×Height+0.004×total IgE+1.233×eosinophil percent, R2=0.209 in the 808 all healthy controls. Eosinophil percent was correlated with FeNO in all healthy controls. FeNO was not associated with BMI.
This study provides reference values for FeNO that can be used to evaluate airway inflammation in elementary school children. Determinants that could most accurately predict FeNO in healthy school-age children were assessed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the secretome of human oligodendrocytes (F3.Olig2 cells) generated from human neural stem cells by transduction with the gene encoding the Olig2 transcription factor. Using mRNA sequencing and protein cytokine arrays, we identified a number of biologically important secretory proteins whose expression has not been previously reported in oligodendrocytes. We found that F3.Olig2 cells secrete IL-6, PDGF-AA, GRO, GM-CSF, and M-CSF, and showed prominent expression of their corresponding receptors. Co-expression of ligands and receptors suggests that autocrine signaling loops may play important roles in both differentiation and maintenance of oligodendrocytes. We also found that F3.Olig2 cells secrete matrix metalloproteinases and matrix metalloproteinase-associated proteins associated with functional competence of oligodendrocytes. The results of our secretome analysis provide insights into the functional and molecular details of human oligodendrocytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of the secretome of oligodendrocytes.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84292. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084292 · 3.23 Impact Factor