Are you W. C. Lee?

Claim your profile

Publications (10)20.47 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inhibitor development complicates haemophilia treatment and may impact caregiver burden. Compare overall burden of caregivers of children with/without inhibitors in the United States using a novel disease-specific questionnaire and the previously validated CarerQol. An on-line questionnaire with six burden domains (i.e. emotional stress, personal sacrifice, financial burden, medical management, child's pain, and transportation) and three visual analogue scales (VAS) was developed based upon a targeted literature review and previous survey findings. The study sample consisted of caregivers of children with haemophilia. The total burden score was calculated by summing the six individual burden domain scores. Higher scores represented greater burden. Descriptive statistics was performed to examine the sample characteristics. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed to compare burden by inhibitor status. All variables were considered significant at P < 0.001. A total of 310 caregivers completed the survey; 30 of them reported caring for a child with an inhibitor. A majority of caregivers of children with inhibitors were mothers (80.0%) and between 35 and 44 years of age (56.7%). Caregivers of children with inhibitors reported significantly higher median total burden scores (99.0 vs. 76.5, P < 0.0001) and median burden-VAS scores (5.5 vs. 3.0, P < 0.0001), as compared to those caring for children without inhibitors. A similar trend was seen across all the six burden domains, with greatest difference in the median burden scores observed in the ‘personal sacrifice’ (3.2 vs. 2.0) and ‘transportation’ (3.3 vs. 2.3) domains. Burden of caregivers should be considered when assessing the psychosocial aspects of managing patients with inhibitors.
    Haemophilia 09/2014; · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 05/2013; 16(3):A115. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital haemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder typically diagnosed at birth or shortly thereafter. Haemophilia imposes a significant burden on patients and their caregivers. The aim of the study was to quantify the overall burden of haemophilia on caregivers in the USA using a novel disease-specific questionnaire and the previously validated CarerQol. Targeted literature review and a previous survey conducted by the authors was used to develop an online questionnaire with six burden domains of interest to caregivers (emotional stress, financial, sacrifice, medical management, child's pain and transportation) and several visual analogue scales (VAS). Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by three haemophilia caregivers. The study sample consisted of caregivers of children with haemophilia identified via a previously developed opt-in research database. Descriptive statistics were employed for demographic and clinical characteristics; a generalized linear model (GLM) was used to identify factors influencing caregiver burden. A total of 310 caregivers completed the survey (45.5% response rate). Most of the participating caregivers were mothers of a child with haemophilia (88%), between 35 and 44 years of age (48%), and with a college education or a postgraduate degree (63%). 'Child's pain' was identified as the most burdensome domain to caregivers (median score = 3.50 out of 5), followed by 'emotional stress' (2.67), 'financial' (2.40), 'transportation' (2.33), 'sacrifice' (2.17) and 'medical management' (2.00) domains. Although higher income exhibited a protective effect, episodes of bleeds, current presence of an inhibitor and lower caregiver productivity in the past month negatively affected caregiver burden per GLM results. Training and educational programs should potentially be developed to address caregiver burden.
    Value in Health 05/2013; 16(3):A76. · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Data on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of congenital haemophilia patients with inhibitors (CHwI) and their caregivers are limited. To understand the association between patient demo-graphics/clinical characteristics with HRQoL among CHwI patients and caregivers, a survey was developed to assess HRQoL with haemophilia-specific QoL questionnaires (HAEMO-QoL/HAEM-A-QoL). In the cross-sectional study, paper-pencil questionnaires were mailed to 261 US CHwI patients/caregivers in July 2010. Descriptive analyses were performed to characterize HRQoL by age and to identify drivers of impairment, from both patient/caregiver perspectives. HRQoL scores were transformed on a scale of 0–100, with higher scores indicating higher impairment in HRQoL. Ninety-seven respondents completed the HRQoL assessment. HRQoL impairment was higher in adult patients. In children ages 8–16 years, mean HAEMO-QoL total score was 33.8 (SD = 15.5), and 35.0 (SD = 16.1) in children ages 4–7 years; for adult patients the mean HAEM-A-QoL total score was 42.2 (SD = 14.8). Adults reported highest impairment in the ‘sports/leisure’ subscale (Mean = 62.5, SD = 18.7), whereas patients 8–16 years reported highest impairment in the ‘physical health’ subscale (Mean = 50.8, SD = 30.5).Caregivers of patients ages 4–7 years reported greatest impairment within the ‘family’ subscale (Mean = 55.6, SD = 19.4). Caregivers were ‘‘considerably/very much’’ bothered by their child's inhibitors and reported higher QoL impairment for their child than parents who were not bothered. Within ChwI patients, HRQoL impairments increased with age and existed across a range of physical/psychosocial domains. In addition, caregiver burden also affected the perceived HRQoL of paediatric CHwI patients. Additional research is considered necessary to further understand the support caregivers need while caring for children with CHwI.
    Haemophilia 03/2013; 19(2). · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Congenital hemophilia patients with inhibitors are at greater risk for developing arthropathy and orthopedic complications compared to those without inhibitors. Elective orthopedic surgeries (EOS) may be an option for these patients and may provide long-term cost savings due to reduced bleed frequency. However, patient motivations and goals for undergoing or delaying such surgeries are not well understood. A US-based patient/caregiver survey was designed to describe inhibitor patient experiences and outcomes following EOS and to develop a comprehensive understanding of patient preferences for EOS, which are lacking in the literature. The paper-pencil questionnaire was mailed to 261 US inhibitor patients/caregivers and included history and timing of EOS, quality-of-life (QoL) and potential benefits of and barriers to receiving EOS. Univariate/bivariate descriptive analyses were performed to characterize those with/without a history of EOS. For 103 subjects who responded, the mean age was 20.9 years. Approximately 25% (n = 26) of respondents underwent EOS, most commonly on the knee (21, 81%); 73.1% of surgery recipients reported the surgery improved or greatly improved their QoL based on single-item response. The highest ranked perceived benefits were less pain, fewer bleeds, and improved mobility. However, the leading concerns reported were lack of improved mobility (62.2%), fear of uncontrolled bleeding (61.3%), and surgical complications, such as blood clot (60.0%). The study consisted of a small sample size, primarily due to the difficulty in trying to reach inhibitor patients or their caregivers, thereby restricting inferential and stratification analysis. QoL improved for most inhibitor patients who reported having EOS. For those considering surgery, there is optimism about the potential benefits, but realistic concerns associated with bleed control and post-op complications.
    Journal of Medical Economics 12/2011; 15(2):305-12.
  • Value in Health 11/2011; 14(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inpatient costs comprise >50% of annual healthcare costs for haemophilia patients with inhibitors but no reports exist on inpatient resource use and costs at a US national level. To quantify inpatient resource use and costs for on-demand treatment of bleeds of US haemophilia patients with inhibitors and compare costs and treatment duration between Factor VIII bypassing agents (BAs). Stays with haemophilia A from 2003-2008 were identified from inpatient billing records. Presence of inhibitors was inferred through use of BA; recombinant activated Factor VII and plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate. Duration and number of infusions of BA, length of stay, use of opioid-containing analgesics and costs were assessed and compared. Among 1322 stays mean BA treatment duration was 4.6 days with 4.9 infusions, 6.1 nights spent in hospital, and 58% administered opioid-containing analgesics. In unadjusted analyses there were significant differences in the above mentioned outcomes by BA use, reflecting underlying differences between the two patient populations. Average inpatient costs were $82,911. In adjusted analyses, African-American race, greater disease severity, hospital region outside the southern US and older age (cost model only) were significant predictors of longer BA treatment duration and higher costs. The economic burden of inpatient on-demand treatment of haemophilia with inhibitors is substantial and is associated with lengthy stays, high costs and inadequate pain relief. Availability of more effective BAs could reduce the need for re-treatment, reducing treatment costs and other medical costs, while improving health related quality of life.
    Haemophilia 08/2011; 18(2):284-90. · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 01/2011; 26(3):279-279.
  • Value in Health 01/2011; 14(3). · 2.19 Impact Factor
  • Value in Health 01/2010; 13(7). · 2.19 Impact Factor