Vincent Plagnol

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Londinium, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (115)1253.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Oliver-McFarlane syndrome is characterised by trichomegaly, congenital hypopituitarism and retinal degeneration with choroidal atrophy. Laurence-Moon syndrome presents similarly, though with progressive spinocerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia and without trichomegaly. Both recessively inherited disorders have no known genetic cause. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the genetic causes of these disorders. Mutations were functionally validated in zebrafish pnpla6 morphants. Embryonic expression was evaluated via in situ hybridisation in human embryonic sections. Human neurohistopathology was performed to characterise cerebellar degeneration. Enzymatic activities were measured in patient-derived fibroblast cell lines. Eight mutations in six families with Oliver-McFarlane or Laurence-Moon syndrome were identified in the PNPLA6 gene, which encodes neuropathy target esterase (NTE). PNPLA6 expression was found in the developing human eye, pituitary and brain. In zebrafish, the pnpla6 curly-tailed morphant phenotype was fully rescued by wild-type human PNPLA6 mRNA and not by mutation-harbouring mRNAs. NTE enzymatic activity was significantly reduced in fibroblast cells derived from individuals with Oliver-McFarlane syndrome. Intriguingly, adult brain histology from a patient with highly overlapping features of Oliver-McFarlane and Laurence-Moon syndromes revealed extensive cerebellar degeneration and atrophy. Previously, PNPLA6 mutations have been associated with spastic paraplegia type 39, Gordon-Holmes syndrome and Boucher-Neuhäuser syndromes. Discovery of these additional PNPLA6-opathies further elucidates a spectrum of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders associated with NTE impairment and suggests a unifying mechanism with diagnostic and prognostic importance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Journal of medical genetics. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Copy number variants (CNVs) have been proposed as a possible source of 'missing heritability' in complex human diseases. Two studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) found null associations with common copy number polymorphisms, but CNVs of low frequency and high penetrance could still play a role. We used the Log-R-Ratio intensity data from a dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, ImmunoChip, to detect rare CNV deletions (rDELs) and duplications (rDUPs) in 6,808 T1D cases, 9,954 controls, and 2,206 families with T1D-affected offspring. Initial analyses detected CNV associations. However, these were shown to be false positive findings, failing replication with PCR. We developed a pipeline of quality control (QC) tests that were calibrated using systematic testing of sensitivity and specificity. The case-control odds ratios (OR) of CNV burden on T1D risk resulting from this QC pipeline converged on unity, suggesting no global frequency difference in rDELs or rDUPs. There was evidence that deletions could impact T1D risk for a small minority of cases, with enrichment for rDELs longer than 400 kb (OR=1.57, p=0.005). There were also 18 de novo rDELs detected in affected offspring but none for unaffected siblings (p=0.03). No specific CNV regions showed robust evidence for association with T1D, although frequencies were lower than expected (most less than 0.1%), substantially reducing statistical power, which was examined in detail. We present an R-package, plumbCNV, which provides an automated approach for quality control (QC) and detection of rare CNVs that can facilitate equivalent analyses of large-scale SNP array datasets. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective A predictable relation between genotype and disease expression is needed in order to use genetic testing for clinical decision-making in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The primary aims of this study were to examine the phenotypes associated with sarcomere protein (SP) gene mutations and test the hypothesis that variation in non-sarcomere genes modifies the phenotype. Methods Unrelated and consecutive patients were clinically evaluated and prospectively followed in a specialist clinic. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyse 41 genes implicated in inherited cardiac conditions. Variants in SP and non-SP genes were tested for associations with phenotype and survival. Results 874 patients (49.6±15.4 years, 67.8% men) were studied; likely disease-causing SP gene variants were detected in 383 (43.8%). Patients with SP variants were characterised by younger age and higher prevalence of family history of HCM, family history of sudden cardiac death, asymmetric septal hypertrophy, greater maximum LV wall thickness (all p values<0.0005) and an increased incidence of cardiovascular death (p=0.012). Similar associations were observed for individual SP genes. Patients with ANK2 variants had greater maximum wall thickness (p=0.0005). Associations at a lower level of significance were demonstrated with variation in other non-SP genes. Conclusions Patients with HCM caused by rare SP variants differ with respect to age at presentation, family history of the disease, morphology and survival from patients without SP variants. Novel associations for SP genes are reported and, for the first time, we demonstrate possible influence of variation in non-SP genes associated with other forms of cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia syndromes on the clinical phenotype of HCM.
    Heart (British Cardiac Society) 10/2014; · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To present a detailed phenotypic and molecular study of a series of 18 patients from 11 families with retinal dystrophies consequent on mutations in the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) gene and to report a novel phenotype. Methods: Families were ascertained from a tertiary clinic in the UK and enrolled in to retinal dystrophy studies investigating the phenotype and molecular basis of inherited retinal disease. Eleven patients were ascertained from the study cohorts and a further 7 from investigation of affected relatives. Detailed phenotyping included electrodiagnostic testing and retinal imaging. Bi-directional Sanger sequencing of all exons and intron-exon boundaries of CRX was performed on all 18 reported patients and segregation confirmed in available relatives. Results: Based on clinical characteristics and electrophysiology, 4 patients had Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), 2 rod cone dystrophy (RCD), 5 cone rod dystrophy (CORD), 1 cone dystrophy (COD) and 6 macular dystrophy with different phenotypes observed within 4 of the 11 families. The macular dystrophy patients presented between 35-50 years old and had visual acuities at last review ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 logMAR (20/32 to 20/630 Snellen). All 18 patients were heterozygous for a mutation in CRX with 7 novel mutations identified. There was no evident association between age of onset and position or type of CRX mutation. De novo mutations were confirmed in 3 patients. Conclusions: Mutations in CRX demonstrate significant phenotypic heterogeneity both between and within pedigrees. A novel, adult onset, macular dystrophy phenotype is characterized, further extending our knowledge of the etiology of dominant macular dystrophies.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 09/2014;
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    Nature Communications 09/2014; 5:4871. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    Nature Communications 09/2014; 5:4871. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim Numerous genes are known to cause dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, until now technological limitations have hindered elucidation of the contribution of all clinically relevant disease genes to DCM phenotypes in larger cohorts. We now utilized next-generation sequencing to overcome these limitations and screened all DCM disease genes in a large cohort. Methods and results In this multi-centre, multi-national study, we have enrolled 639 patients with sporadic or familial DCM. To all samples, we applied a standardized protocol for ultra-high coverage next-generation sequencing of 84 genes, leading to 99.1% coverage of the target region with at least 50-fold and a mean read depth of 2415. In this well characterized cohort, we find the highest number of known cardiomyopathy mutations in plakophilin-2, myosin-binding protein C-3, and desmoplakin. When we include yet unknown but predicted disease variants, we find titin, plakophilin-2, myosin-binding protein-C 3, desmoplakin, ryanodine receptor 2, desmocollin-2, desmoglein-2, and SCN5A variants among the most commonly mutated genes. The overlap between DCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and channelopathy causing mutations is considerably high. Of note, we find that >38% of patients have compound or combined mutations and 12.8% have three or even more mutations. When comparing patients recruited in the eight participating European countries we find remarkably little differences in mutation frequencies and affected genes. Conclusion This is to our knowledge, the first study that comprehensively investigated the genetics of DCM in a large-scale cohort and across a broad gene panel of the known DCM genes. Our results underline the high analytical quality and feasibility of Next-Generation Sequencing in clinical genetic diagnostics and provide a sound database of the genetic causes of DCM.
    European Heart Journal 08/2014; · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe novel CHRDL1 mutations in ten families with X-linked megalocornea (MGC1). Our mutation-positive cohort enabled us to establish ultrasonography as a reliable clinical diagnostic tool to distinguish between MGC1 and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG). Megalocornea is also a feature of Neuhäuser or megalocornea-mental retardation (MMR) syndrome, a rare condition of unknown etiology. In a male patient diagnosed with MMR, we performed targeted and whole exome sequencing (WES) and identified a novel missense mutation in CHRDL1 that accounts for his MGC1 phenotype but not his non-ocular features. This finding suggests that MMR syndrome, in some cases, may be di- or multigenic. MGC1 patients have reduced central corneal thickness (CCT); however no X-linked loci have been associated with CCT, possibly because the majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) overlook the X-chromosome. We therefore explored whether variants on the X-chromosome are associated with CCT. We found rs149956316, in intron 6 of CHRDL1, to be the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (p = 6.81×10-6) on the X-chromosome. However, this association was not replicated in a smaller subset of whole genome sequenced samples. This study highlights the importance of including X-chromosome SNP data in GWAS to identify potential loci associated with quantitative traits or disease risk.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104163. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to design a genotyping platform that would allow rapid genetic characterization of samples in the context of genetic mutations and risk factors associated with common neurodegenerative diseases. The platform needed to be relatively affordable, rapid to deploy, and use a common and accessible technology. Central to this project, we wanted to make the content of the platform open to any investigator without restriction. In designing this array we prioritized a number of types of genetic variability for inclusion, such as known risk alleles, disease-causing mutations, putative risk alleles, and other functionally important variants. The array was primarily designed to allow rapid screening of samples for disease-causing mutations and large population studies of risk factors. Notably, an explicit aim was to make this array widely available to facilitate data sharing across and within diseases. The resulting array, NeuroX, is a remarkably cost and time effective solution for high-quality genotyping. NeuroX comprises a backbone of standard Illumina exome content of approximately 240,000 variants, and over 24,000 custom content variants focusing on neurologic diseases. Data are generated at approximately $50-$60 per sample using a 12-sample format chip and regular Infinium infrastructure; thus, genotyping is rapid and accessible to many investigators. Here, we describe the design of NeuroX, discuss the utility of NeuroX in the analyses of rare and common risk variants, and present quality control metrics and a brief primer for the analysis of NeuroX derived data. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Neurobiology of aging. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for aneuploidies is now available through commercial companies in many countries, including through private practice in the United Kingdom (UK). Thorough evaluation of service delivery requirements are needed to facilitate NIPT being offered more widely within state funded healthcare systems such as the UK's National Health Service (NHS). Successful implementation will require the development of laboratory standards, consideration of stakeholder views, an analysis of costs and development of patient and health professional educational materials.Methods/design: NIPT will be offered in an NHS setting as a contingent screening test. Pregnant woman will be recruited through six maternity units in England and Scotland. Women eligible for Down's syndrome screening (DSS) will be informed about the study at the time of booking. Women that choose routine DSS will be offered NIPT if they have a screening risk >=1:1000. NIPT results for trisomy 21, 18, 13 will be reported within 7-10 working days. Data on DSS, NIPT and invasive testing uptake, pregnancy outcomes and test efficacy will be collected. Additional data will be gathered though questionnaires to a) determine acceptability to patients and health professionals, b) evaluate patient and health professional education, c) assess informed choice in women accepting or declining testing and d) gauge family expenses. Qualitative interviews will also be conducted with a sub-set of participating women and health professionals.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 07/2014; 14(1):229. · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of fetal aneuploidy using cell-free fetal DNA is becoming part of routine clinical practice. RAPIDR is an easy to use, open source R package that implements several published NIPT analysis methods. The input to RAPIDR is a set of sequence alignment files in the BAM format, and the outputs are calls for aneuploidy, including trisomies 13, 18, 21 and monosomy X as well as fetal sex. RAPIDR has been extensively tested with a large sample set as part of the RAPID project in the UK. The package contains quality control steps to make it robust for use in the clinical setting.
    Bioinformatics (Oxford, England). 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disease of lipid metabolism, which leads to early coronary heart disease. Mutations in LDLR, APOB and PCSK9 can be detected in 80% of definite FH (DFH) patients. This study aimed to identify novel FH-causing genetic variants in patients with no detectable mutation.
    Journal of medical genetics. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In a subset of inherited retinal degenerations (including cone, cone-rod, and macular dystrophies), cone photoreceptors are more severely affected than rods; ABCA4 mutations are the most common cause of this heterogeneous class of disorders. To identify retinal-disease-associated genes, we performed exome sequencing in 28 individuals with "cone-first" retinal disease and clinical features atypical for ABCA4 retinopathy. We then conducted a gene-based case-control association study with an internal exome data set as the control group. TTLL5, encoding a tubulin glutamylase, was highlighted as the most likely disease-associated gene; 2 of 28 affected subjects harbored presumed loss-of-function variants: c.[1586_1589delAGAG];[1586_1589delAGAG], p.[Glu529Valfs(∗)2];[Glu529Valfs(∗)2], and c.[401delT(;)3354G>A], p.[Leu134Argfs(∗)45(;)Trp1118(∗)]. We then inspected previously collected exome sequence data from individuals with related phenotypes and found two siblings with homozygous nonsense variant c.1627G>T (p.Glu543(∗)) in TTLL5. Subsequently, we tested a panel of 55 probands with retinal dystrophy for TTLL5 mutations; one proband had a homozygous missense change (c.1627G>A [p.Glu543Lys]). The retinal phenotype was highly similar in three of four families; the sibling pair had a more severe, early-onset disease. In human and murine retinae, TTLL5 localized to the centrioles at the base of the connecting cilium. TTLL5 has been previously reported to be essential for the correct function of sperm flagella in mice and play a role in polyglutamylation of primary cilia in vitro. Notably, genes involved in the polyglutamylation and deglutamylation of tubulin have been associated with photoreceptor degeneration in mice. The electrophysiological and fundus autofluorescence imaging presented here should facilitate the molecular diagnosis in further families.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 05/2014; 94(5):760-9. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for type 1 diabetes (T1D) have successfully identified more than 40 independent T1D associated tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, owing to technical limitations of copy number variants (CNVs) genotyping assays, the assessment of the role of CNVs has been limited to the subset of these in high linkage disequilibrium with tag SNPs. The contribution of untagged CNVs, often multi-allelic and difficult to genotype using existing assays, to the heritability of T1D remains an open question. To investigate this issue, we designed a custom comparative genetic hybridization array (aCGH) specifically designed to assay untagged CNV loci identified from a variety of sources. To overcome the technical limitations of the case control design for this class of CNVs, we genotyped the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC) family resource (representing 3,903 transmissions from parents to affected offspring) and used an association testing strategy that does not necessitate obtaining discrete genotypes. Our design targeted 4,309 CNVs, of which 3,410 passed stringent quality control filters. As a positive control, the scan confirmed the known T1D association at the INS locus by direct typing of the 5' variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) locus. Our results clarify the fact that the disease association is indistinguishable from the two main polymorphic allele classes of the INS VNTR, class I-and class III. We also identified novel technical artifacts resulting into spurious associations at the somatically rearranging loci, T cell receptor, TCRA/TCRD and TCRB, and Immunoglobulin heavy chain, IGH, loci on chromosomes 14q11.2, 7q34 and 14q32.33, respectively. However, our data did not identify novel T1D loci. Our results do not support a major role of untagged CNVs in T1D heritability.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2014; 10(5):e1004367. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic association studies, in particular the genome-wide association study (GWAS) design, have provided a wealth of novel insights into the aetiology of a wide range of human diseases and traits, in particular cardiovascular diseases and lipid biomarkers. The next challenge consists of understanding the molecular basis of these associations. The integration of multiple association datasets, including gene expression datasets, can contribute to this goal. We have developed a novel statistical methodology to assess whether two association signals are consistent with a shared causal variant. An application is the integration of disease scans with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) studies, but any pair of GWAS datasets can be integrated in this framework. We demonstrate the value of the approach by re-analysing a gene expression dataset in 966 liver samples with a published meta-analysis of lipid traits including >100,000 individuals of European ancestry. Combining all lipid biomarkers, our re-analysis supported 26 out of 38 reported colocalisation results with eQTLs and identified 14 new colocalisation results, hence highlighting the value of a formal statistical test. In three cases of reported eQTL-lipid pairs (SYPL2, IFT172, TBKBP1) for which our analysis suggests that the eQTL pattern is not consistent with the lipid association, we identify alternative colocalisation results with SORT1, GCKR, and KPNB1, indicating that these genes are more likely to be causal in these genomic intervals. A key feature of the method is the ability to derive the output statistics from single SNP summary statistics, hence making it possible to perform systematic meta-analysis type comparisons across multiple GWAS datasets (implemented online at http://coloc.cs.ucl.ac.uk/coloc/). Our methodology provides information about candidate causal genes in associated intervals and has direct implications for the understanding of complex diseases as well as the design of drugs to target disease pathways.
    PLoS Genetics 05/2014; 10(5):e1004383. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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  • The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 03/2014; · 12.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exome sequencing was performed in three index cases with bone marrow failure and neurological dysfunction and whose parents are first-degree cousins. Homozygous truncating mutations were identified in ERCC6L2 in two of the individuals. Both of these mutations affect the subcellular localization and stability of ERCC6L2. We show here that knockdown of ERCC6L2 in human A549 cells significantly reduced their viability upon exposure to the DNA-damaging agents mitomycin C and Irofulven, but not etoposide and camptothecin, suggesting a role in nucleotide excision repair. ERCC6L2-knockdown cells also displayed H2AX phosphorylation, which significantly increased upon genotoxic stress, suggesting an early DNA-damage response. Intriguingly, ERCC6L2 was seen to translocate to the mitochondria and the nucleus in response to DNA damage, and ERCC6L2 knockdown induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl cysteine attenuated the Irofulven-induced cytotoxicity in ERCC6L2-knockdown cells and abolished ERCCGL2 traffic to the mitochondria and nucleus in response to this DNA-damaging agent. Collectively, these observations identify a distinct bone-marrow-failure syndrome due to mutations in ERCC6L2, a gene implicated in DNA repair and mitochondrial function.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2014; 94(2):246-56. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GTP cyclohydrolase 1, encoded by the GCH1 gene, is an essential enzyme for dopamine production in nigrostriatal cells. Loss-of-function mutations in GCH1 result in severe reduction of dopamine synthesis in nigrostriatal cells and are the most common cause of DOPA-responsive dystonia, a rare disease that classically presents in childhood with generalized dystonia and a dramatic long-lasting response to levodopa. We describe clinical, genetic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic imaging ([123I]N-omega-fluoropropyl-2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl) tropane single photon computed tomography) findings of four unrelated pedigrees with DOPA-responsive dystonia in which pathogenic GCH1 variants were identified in family members with adult-onset parkinsonism. Dopamine transporter imaging was abnormal in all parkinsonian patients, indicating Parkinson's disease-like nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. We subsequently explored the possibility that pathogenic GCH1 variants could contribute to the risk of developing Parkinson's disease, even in the absence of a family history for DOPA-responsive dystonia. The frequency of GCH1 variants was evaluated in whole-exome sequencing data of 1318 cases with Parkinson's disease and 5935 control subjects. Combining cases and controls, we identified a total of 11 different heterozygous GCH1 variants, all at low frequency. This list includes four pathogenic variants previously associated with DOPA-responsive dystonia (Q110X, V204I, K224R and M230I) and seven of undetermined clinical relevance (Q110E, T112A, A120S, D134G, I154V, R198Q and G217V). The frequency of GCH1 variants was significantly higher (Fisher's exact test P-value 0.0001) in cases (10/1318 = 0.75%) than in controls (6/5935 = 0.1%; odds ratio 7.5; 95% confidence interval 2.4-25.3). Our results show that rare GCH1 variants are associated with an increased risk for Parkinson's disease. These findings expand the clinical and biological relevance of GTP cycloydrolase 1 deficiency, suggesting that it not only leads to biochemical striatal dopamine depletion and DOPA-responsive dystonia, but also predisposes to nigrostriatal cell loss. Further insight into GCH1-associated pathogenetic mechanisms will shed light on the role of dopamine metabolism in nigral degeneration and Parkinson's disease.
    Brain 01/2014; 137(9):2480-2492. · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TDP43 protein mislocalization is a hallmark of the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, and mutations in the gene encoding TDP43 cause both disorders, further highlighting its role in disease pathogenesis. TDP43 is a heterogenous ribonucleoprotein, therefore suggesting that alterations in RNA metabolism play a role in these disorders, although direct evidence in patients is lacking. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most common acquired myopathy occurring in adults aged older than 50 years and abnormal cytoplasmic accumulations of TDP43 have been consistently described in sIBM myofibers. Here, we exploit high quality RNA from frozen sIBM muscle biopsies for transcriptomic studies on TDP43-proteinopathy patient tissue. Surprisingly, we found widespread sIBM-specific changes in the RNA metabolism pathways themselves. Consistent with this finding, we describe novel RNA binding proteins to mislocalize in the cytoplasm of sIBM myofibers and splicing changes in MAPT, a gene previously shown to play a role in sIBM. Our data indicate widespread alterations of RNA metabolism are a novel aspect of disease pathogenesis in sIBM. These findings also document an association, in TDP43-proteinopathy patients, between heterogenous ribonucleoprotein pathology and RNA metabolism alterations and carry importance for neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.
    Neurobiology of aging 12/2013; · 5.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,253.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • UCL Eastman Dental Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Oxford
      • Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
      • Department of Medical Retina
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • MRC National Institute for Medical Research
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Nephrology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
      Ar Riyāḑ, Ar Riyāḑ, Saudi Arabia
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Medical Genetics
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2009–2012
    • Queen Mary, University of London
      • • Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
      • • Centre for Digestive Diseases
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • Wellcome Trust
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University College London
      • Institute of Ophthalmology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2008–2009
    • Cambridge Institute for Medical Research
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2007
    • University of Southern California
      • Division of Molecular and Computational Biology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States