Svante Twetman

University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (192)249.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effect of biannual fluoride varnish applications in preschool children as an adjunct to school-based oral health promotion and supervised tooth brushing with 1,000ppm fluoride toothpaste.
    Journal of dentistry. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of tablets containing probiotic lactobacilli on early caries lesions in adolescents with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). 36 healthy adolescents of both sexes (12-17 years of age) were enrolled and randomly allocated to a placebo-controlled trial with two parallel groups. The test group received two tablets daily containing two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) for a period of three months, while the control group got identical placebo tablets without live bacteria. The primary outcome was QLF-readings (change in fluorescence, ?F and lesion area, mm2) at baseline and after 3 months, conducted at two buccal sites of each individual, pre-selected with clearly visible clinical signs of enamel demineralisation (white spots). Significantly more premolars were allocated to the placebo group, while the test group had more incisors (P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in fluorescence values between the groups, neither at baseline, nor at the follow-up. There was however a significant decrease in fluorescence over time in the test group, but not in the placebo group (P<0.05). No alterations of the lesion area (?A) were found in any group. The inter-examiner intra-class correlation coefficient-value for QLF-readings was excellent. No side- or adverse effects were reported during the intervention period. This pilot study found a significant decrease over time in the test group. However, no statistically significant differences in fluorescence values between the groups were found. Hence, the null hypothesis could not be rejected.
    Beneficial Microbes 06/2014; · 1.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to learn whether presence of caries in an adult population was associated with a salivary bacterial profile different from that of individuals without untreated caries. Stimulated saliva samples from 621 participants of the Danish Health Examination Survey were analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray technology. Samples from 174 individuals with dental caries and 447 from a control cohort were compared using frequency and levels of identified bacterial taxa/clusters as endpoints. Differences at taxon/cluster level were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles. A reduced bacterial diversity was observed in samples from subjects with dental caries. Five bacterial taxa (Veillonella parvula, Veillonella atypica, Megasphaera micronuciformis, Fusobacterium periodontium and Achromobacter xylosoxidans) and one bacterial cluster (Leptotrichia sp. clones C3MKM102 and GT018_ot417/462) were less frequently found in the caries group (adjusted p value <0.01) while two bacterial taxa (Solobacterium moorei and Streptococcus salivarius) and three bacterial clusters (Streptococcus parasanguinis I and II and sp. clone BE024_ot057/411/721, Streptococcus parasanguinis I and II and sinensis_ot411/721/767, Streptococcus salivarius and sp. clone FO042_ot067/755) were present at significantly higher levels (adjusted p value <0.01). The principal component analysis displayed a marked difference in the bacterial community profiles between groups. Presence of manifest caries was associated with a reduced diversity and an altered salivary bacterial community profile. Our data support recent theories that ecological stress-induced changes of commensal microbial communities are involved in the shift from oral health to tooth decay. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Caries Research 03/2014; 48(5):368-375. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: To compare the Cariogram caries risk profiles with and without salivary buffer capacity and mutans streptococci (MS) counts in adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 90 healthy Greek adolescents who were undergoing orthodontic treatment. The Cariogram risk model was applied through a questionnaire and clinical and salivary examinations. The actual chance of avoiding new caries was calculated, and participants were categorized into three groups (0-40% = high caries risk, 41-60% = medium caries risk, and 61-100% = low caries risk) using a nine-item Cariogram or by excluding either salivary buffer capacity or MS or both. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for comparing the Cariogram outcome with and without salivary variables. The distribution of variables was compared by nonparametric marginal homogeneity tests. Results: Using the Cariogram with nine variables, 62% of the patients were assigned to the high caries risk category, 13% to the medium risk category, and 24% to the low risk category. Omission of salivary buffer capacity did not alter the risk categories significantly, while more subjects were assigned to the medium risk category when MS counts were excluded. The difference between the nine-item Cariogram and the MS-reduced version, however, was not statistically significant (P = .07). Conclusions: The Cariogram model may be used both with and without salivary tests for risk grouping in orthodontic practice.
    The Angle Orthodontist 02/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the performance of an impedance spectroscopy technology for detecting non-cavitated occlusal caries lesions in permanent teeth in vitro. The method was compared with a commonly used laser fluorescence device and validated against histology. A non-cavitated sample of 100 extracted posterior teeth was randomly selected and assessed for caries on enamel and dentin level with aid of CarioScan PRO (ACIS) and DIAGNOdent pen (LF pen) by three examiners. After the measurements, the extension of the lesion was histologically determined as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and receiver-operating curves were calculated. Intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility was expressed by intra class correlation coefficients. The histological caries prevalence was 99% and 41% exhibited dentin caries. The ACIS technique displayed high specificities but almost negligible sensitivities at readings >50. A similar pattern was noted for the LF pen at readings >30. The intra- and inter-examiner reproducibility varied between 0.47 and 0.98 and the values were generally lower for the ACIS technique than for the LF pen. The inter-examiner agreement reached excellent levels with both methods. In vitro,the ACIS technique showed a low ability to disclose occlusal caries lesions in the enamel and/or dentin of non-cavitated permanent molars. However, further in vivo studies of permanent occlusal surfaces are needed to mirror the clinical situation.
    The Open Dentistry Journal 01/2014; 8:28-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
    Journal of Oral Microbiology 01/2014; 6.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. It was hypothesized that, by comparing matched subjects with major differences in these dental diseases, but yet normal saliva flow rates, it would be possible to obtain data on the effect of saliva composition on dental disease isolated from the effect of the flow rate. Thus, the aim of the study was to compare the major physicochemical characteristics of stimulated whole saliva in three groups of 85 subjects, each with normal saliva flow rates and at least 24 remaining teeth. Materials and methods. A group with very little dental disease (healthy), a group with dental erosion (erosion) and a group with very high caries experience (caries) were chosen. Furthermore, the aim was to determine whether differences among groups could also be found on an individual level. Results. Although it was not possible to retrieve three groups whose members were completely identical, the present study points in the direction that, on a group level, subjects with very little dental disease seemed to have a more favorable physicochemical saliva composition with respect to higher calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, pH, degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite and a lower critical pH (p < 0.05 or less). However, on an individual level the explanatory power for the saliva composition was only 10% for caries experience and only 11% for dental erosion (p < 0.001). Conclusion. The compositional analyses performed in this study on stimulated whole saliva, including major physicochemical characteristics of saliva, will most likely have little predictive value for future dental caries and erosion in single individuals.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 12/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Frequency and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of around 300 bacterial taxa/clusters in samples were used as parameters for investigation. Differences at taxon/cluster values between groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U-test with Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. Principal component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels in samples from periodontitis patients than in samples from the control cohort. These differences were independent of the individuals' smoking status. Periodontitis is associated with a characteristic bacterial profile of saliva different from that of a control cohort.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 11/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To assess the ability of multivariate models and single factors to correctly identify future caries development in pre-school children and schoolchildren/adolescents. Study design. A systematic literature search for relevant papers was conducted with pre-determined inclusion criteria. Abstracts and full-text articles were assessed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was graded according to the QUADAS tool. The quality of evidence of models and single predictors was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results. Ninety original articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seven studies had high quality, 35 moderate and the rest poor quality. The accuracy of multivariate models was higher for pre-school children than for schoolchildren/adolescents. However, the models had seldom been validated in independent populations, making their accuracy uncertain. Of the single predictors, baseline caries experience had moderate/good accuracy in pre-school children and limited accuracy in schoolchildren/adolescents. The period of highest risk for caries incidence in permanent teeth was the first few years after tooth eruption. In general, the quality of evidence was limited. Conclusions. Multivariate models and baseline caries prevalence performed better in pre-school children than in schoolchildren/adolescents. Baseline caries prevalence was the most accurate single predictor in all age groups. The heterogeneity of populations, models, outcome criteria, measures and reporting hampered the synthesis of results. There is a great need to standardize study design, outcome measures and reporting of data in studies on caries risk assessment. The accuracy of prediction models should be validated in at least one independent population.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 09/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between salivary buffer capacity and menarche, and to explore any association with levels of the sex hormone progesterone in stimulated whole saliva in adolescent girls. The material comprised 162 girls, 12 years of age at baseline in the 6th grade, who were followed for 3 years. Every 4th month, a stimulated whole saliva sample was collected, secretion rate and buffer capacity were determined, and information was gathered on menarche, ongoing menses, and caries increment. Once yearly, the salivary concentration of progesterone was determined with an enzyme immunoassay kit. The results showed a significantly impaired salivary buffer capacity over the years (P
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco have a detrimental impact on general and oral health. The relationship to dental caries is however still unclear. As caries is a multi-factorial disease with clear life-style, socio-economic and socio-demographic gradients, the tobacco use may be a co-variable in this complex rather than a direct etiological factor. Our aim was to analyze the impact of tobacco use on caries incidence among adolescents, with consideration to socio-economic variables by residency, using epidemiological data from a longitudinal study in the region of Halland, Sweden. The study population consisted of 10,068 adolescents between 16--19 years of age from whom yearly data on caries and tobacco use (cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco) were obtained during the period 2006--2012. Reported DMFS increment between 16 and 19 years of age ([increment]DMFS) for an individual was considered as the primary caries outcome. The outcome data were compared for self-reported never vs. ever users of tobacco, with consideration to neighborhood-level socio-economy (4 strata), baseline (i.e., 16 years of age) DMFS and sex. The region consists of 65 parishes with various socio-economic conditions and each study individual was geo-coded with respect to his/her residence parish. Neighborhood (parish-level) socio-economy was assessed by proportion of residing families with low household purchasing power. [increment]DMFS differed evidently between ever and never users of tobacco (mean values: 1.8 vs. 1.2; proportion with [increment]DMFS > 0: 54.2% vs. 40.5%; p < 0.0001). Significant differences were observed in each neighborhood-level socio-economic stratum. Even after controlling for baseline DMFS and sex, [increment]DMFS differed highly significantly between the ever and never users of tobacco (overall p < 0.0001). Tobacco use was clearly associated with increased caries increment during adolescence. Hence, this factor is relevant to consider in the clinical caries risk assessment of the individual patient as well as for community health plans dealing with oral health.
    BMC Oral Health 07/2013; 13(1):31. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives. To validate a risk classification model according to the Public Dental Service (PDS) guidelines with the actual 3-year caries outcome in terms of predictive values. Materials and methods. All 19-year-old patients registered at eight public dental clinics in Skåne, Sweden were invited to participate (n = 1699). The study group who completed the baseline examination consisted of 1295 subjects, representing 10% of the age group attending the public dental care in the region. A risk classification of each patient in four categories was made by the patient's regular team according to the guidelines. At the follow-up 3 years later, 75.8% were accessible. The final examinations included bitewing radiographs and the actual caries increment for 982 patients was calculated. Results. At baseline, 11.9% were assessed as being at 'high' or 'very high' risk. The dropouts had significantly more caries than the remaining patients (p < 0.05). The general disease activity was low, but those grouped into the two highest risk groups displayed significantly more new caries than those at lower risk (p < 0.05). With a cut-off value ΔDFS > 0 vs DFS = 0, the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity 56% for 'low' risk vs any risk. By combining the 'low' and 'some' risk categories, the PDS model generated an improved specificity (94%). Conclusions. The risk assessment scheme used by the Public Dental Service for young adults relied basically on past and current caries activity and 65-70% of the patients were correctly classified. The model was most effective to screen out patients with low caries risk.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 07/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Salt fluoridation is considered a cost-effective community strategy for reducing caries. To evaluate the effect of school-based and domestic distribution of F-salt to schoolchildren residing in a disadvantaged community. Seven hundred and thirty-three schoolchildren (12-14 years), attending two public schools, were enrolled; one was assigned to intervention (IS), whereas the other served as reference (RS). Subjects in IS were given access to F-salt (250 ppm F) in marked jars at school lunch and through free supply for domestic use. The 2-year caries increment and progression rate, assessed from bitewing radiographs, was scored. Information on diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure was collected through a baseline questionnaire. The dropout rate was high (IS 27%; RS 18%). At baseline, the IS children displayed more unfavourable risk factors and a higher caries experience than RS children. There were no significant differences in total caries increment or proximal progression rate between the two schools. A negative correlation (r = -0.29; P < 0.05) between the amount of delivered salt and the caries progression rate was, however, noted. No side effects were reported. F-salt was not effective in this setting. Still, the findings indicate that salt may be a beneficial source of fluoride in schoolchildren provided that compliance can be secured.
    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 06/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. The aims of the oral part of the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES 2007-2008) were (1) to establish an oral health database for adult Danes and (2) to explore the influence of general diseases and lifestyle on oral health. This paper presents the study population, examination methods, questionnaire and baseline results. Materials and methods. The study population comprised 4402 subjects, aged 18-96, consecutively enrolled from 18 065 DANHES participants from 13 municipalities in Denmark. The oral part consisted of a validated questionnaire and a clinical examination, carried out in mobile units by three trained and calibrated dental hygienists. The data were processed with descriptive statistics and mono- and bivariate analyses. Results. The mean age was 54.1 years and 60% were women. The mean number of natural teeth was 26.6; the mean DMFT/DMFS values were 18.9 and 61.0, and varied with age (DMFT 8.7-24.3). A higher proportion of females suffered from dental erosion in the younger age groups. Forty per cent of all subjects had a mean clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm, varying from 4% among those aged 18-34 to 80% in those over 75. A sub-optimal saliva secretion rate was more common among females than males (17.7% vs 10.4%) and this was reflected by the reported frequency of dry mouth. Conclusion. This extensive cross-sectional study provides a platform for obtaining future knowledge of the impact of health- and lifestyle-related factors on oral diseases. The validated questionnaire and the clinical characteristics enable robust analyses, although the conclusions may be hampered by limited external validity.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 04/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Root caries is prevalent in elderly disabled nursing home residents in Denmark. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of tooth brushing with 5,000 versus 1,450 ppm of fluoridated toothpaste (F-toothpaste) for controlling root caries in nursing home residents. The duration of the study was 8 months. Elderly disabled residents (n = 176) in 6 nursing homes in the Copenhagen area consented to take part in the study. They were randomly assigned to use one of the two toothpastes. Both groups had their teeth brushed twice a day by the nursing staff. A total of 125 residents completed the study. Baseline and follow-up clinical examinations were performed by one calibrated examiner. Texture, contour, location and colour of root caries lesions were used to evaluate lesion activity. No differences (p values >0.16) were noted in the baseline examination with regards to age, mouth dryness, wearing of partial or full dentures in one of the jaws, occurrence of plaque and active (2.61 vs. 2.67; SD, 1.7 vs.1.8) or arrested lesions (0.62 vs. 0.63; SD, 1.7 vs. 1.7) between the 5,000 and the 1,450 ppm fluoride groups, respectively. Mean numbers of active root caries lesions at the follow-up examination were 1.05 (2.76) versus 2.55 (1.91) and mean numbers of arrested caries lesions were 2.13 (1.68) versus 0.61 (1.76) in the 5,000 and the 1,450 ppm fluoride groups, respectively (p < 0.001). To conclude, 5,000 ppm F-toothpaste is significantly more effective for controlling root caries lesion progression and promoting remineralization compared to 1,450 ppm F-toothpaste.
    Caries Research 04/2013; 47(5):391-398. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed whether the persistence of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 in saliva could delay the regrowth of mutans streptococci (MS) after a full-mouth disinfection with chlorhexidine (CHX). A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a 6-week intervention period and 3- and 6-month follow-up was performed. 62 healthy subjects with moderate to high counts of MS were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 32) or a placebo group (n = 30). Before onset of the intervention, subjects received two sessions of professional cleaning, flossing, and application of CHX varnish and rinsed their mouth with a CHX solution between the sessions (2 days). Thereafter, the test group used probiotic lozenges (2/day) containing L. reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289; 1 × 10(8) CFU of each strain), and the placebo group used identical lozenges lacking the lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected and cultured onto selective media, and isolates of L. reuteri as well as DNA directly extracted from saliva were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. Presence of salivary MS was analysed with a chair-side test. L. reuteri was frequently detected by culture during the intervention period but in only 3 test group subjects at follow-ups. Regrowth of MS statistically significantly differed depending on the presence or absence of L. reuteri DSM 17938 detected by PCR. We conclude that cultivable L. reuteri strains may only sporadically be confirmed after termination of the intervention, but subjects with PCR-detected L. reuteri demonstrated slower regrowth of MS.
    Caries Research 03/2013; 47(4):338-345. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim. Probiotic bacteria have been introduced for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases. The aim was to assess if daily oral administration of probiotic bacteria could influence the inflammatory response and the composition of supragingival plaque in an experimental gingivitis model. Materials and methods. Eighteen healthy female adults volunteered after informed consent. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design was used. The buccal surface of first molars was used as experimental sites. A mouth-guard covering the first premolar to second molar was used when brushing, preventing accidental cleaning during 3 weeks of plaque accumulation. Lozenges containing L. reuteri (ATCC55730 and ATCC PTA5289) or placebo were taken twice a day. During the run-in and washout periods, professional tooth cleaning was performed 5 days/week. At baseline and follow-up, plaque index, gingival index and bleeding on probing were recorded. Samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analysed for concentration of seven inflammatory mediators. Bacterial samples were processed with checkerboard DNA/DNA-hybridization. Results. All subjects presented a local plaque accumulation and developed manifest gingivitis at the test sites during the intervention periods. The volume of GCF increased in both groups but was statistically significant only in the placebo group (p < 0.05). The concentrations of IL1-β and IL-18 increased significantly (p < 0.05), while IL-8 and MIP1-β decreased (p < 0.05). No differences were displayed between test and placebo. Likewise, the microbial composition did not differ between the groups. Conclusion. Daily intake of probiotic lozenges did not seem to significantly affect the plaque accumulation, inflammatory reaction or the composition of the biofilm during experimental gingivitis.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 01/2013; · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • I Thorild, B Lindau, S Twetman
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To evaluate the long-term outcome of a motherchild project in which mothers (n=173) with high counts of salivary mutans streptococci were randomly assigned to daily chewing gums containing xylitol (A), chlorhexidine/ xylitol/sorbitol (B), or sodium fluoride/xylitol/sorbitol (C) for one year, when the child was between 6 and 18 months. 140 of the off-springs were re-examined at the age of 10 years and 204 children of mothers with low counts of salivary mutans streptococci three months after delivery served as positive controls (D). Caries was scored in the young permanent dentition on enamel (noncavitated) and dentine (cavitated) levels. The long-term attrition rate was 15%. The overall caries prevalence in the combined groups at 10 years of age was 31% (21% non-cavitated; 17% cavitated) with a mean DS of 0.7 (SD 1.3). No significant differences were found between the three experimental groups (A-C), or when compared with the control group. A statistically significant (p<0.05) positive relationship between the levels of salivary mutans streptococci at 18 months of age and the caries experience at the age of 10 years was disclosed for all groups combined. No beneficial longterm effects of maternal xylitol gum exposure on their children's dental health were demonstrated when compared with gums containing chlorhexidine and fluoride.
    European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 12/2012; 13(6):305-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (∼ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same amount of milk without fluoride. The intervention period was 12 weeks and the end-point was mineral gain or loss in enamel, assessed by QLF on two selected sites from each individual. The attrition rate was 12.5% and 112 sites were included in the final evaluation. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups concerning fluorescence (ΔF) values and lesion area (A mm(2)) at baseline. After 12 weeks, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in ΔF was registered in the fluoridated milk group and a significant increase in the non-fluoride control group (p < 0.05). The mean reduction in the test group was somewhat lower (14%) than the increase in the control group (18%), but individual variations were evident. Only minor alterations of lesion area were recorded over the 12-week period and no statistically significant differences compared with baseline were found in any of the groups. Conclusion. Daily intake of fluoridated milk may aid remineralization of white spot lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 11/2012; · 1.41 Impact Factor
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    Mette K Keller, Svante Twetman
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA) production in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: In the first part (A), suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v) were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25). LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B), subjects (n=18) were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. RESULTS: Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p<0.05). Fructose gave higher LA concentrations than xylitol. In part B, there were no significant differences in LA production between baseline and follow up in any of the groups and no differences between test and placebo were displayed. The salivary MS counts were not significantly altered during the intervention but the lactobacilli counts increased significantly in the test group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112).Trial registrationNCT01700712.
    BMC Oral Health 10/2012; 12(1):44. · 1.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
249.76 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • University of Copenhagen
      • • Department of Odontology
      • • School of Dentistry
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Jönköping University
      Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden
  • 2005–2013
    • Region Skåne
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 2001–2013
    • Umeå University
      • Department of Odontology
      Umeå, Vaesterbotten, Sweden
  • 1999–2013
    • Malmö University
      • • Department of Cariology
      • • Faculty of Odontology (OD)
      Malmö, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1989–2011
    • Länssjukhuset Ryhov
      Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden
  • 2006–2008
    • Yeditepe University
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      İstanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
  • 1982–2006
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Department of Dental Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine, Huddinge
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2004
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Health Science - DISS
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
    • Statens folkhälsoinstitut
      Östersund, Jämtland, Sweden
    • King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre
      • Department of Dentistry
      Jeddah, Mintaqat Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 2003
    • University of Southern California
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden
  • 1994
    • University of Gothenburg
      • Department of Pedodontics
      Göteborg, Vaestra Goetaland, Sweden