[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunisation programs are designed to reduce serious morbidity and mortality from influenza, but most evidence supporting the effectiveness of this intervention has focused on disease in the community or in primary care settings. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against hospitalisation with confirmed influenza. We compared influenza vaccination status in patients hospitalised with PCR-confirmed influenza with patients hospitalised with influenza-negative respiratory infections in an Australian sentinel surveillance system. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated from the odds ratio of vaccination in cases and controls. We performed both simple multivariate regression and a stratified analysis based on propensity score of vaccination. Vaccination status was ascertained in 333 of 598 patients with confirmed influenza and 785 of 1384 test-negative patients. Overall estimated crude vaccine effectiveness was 57% (41%, 68%). After adjusting for age, chronic comorbidities and pregnancy status, the estimated vaccine effectiveness was 37% (95% CI: 12%, 55%). In an analysis accounting for a propensity score for vaccination, the estimated vaccine effectiveness was 48.3% (95% CI: 30.0, 61.8%). Influenza vaccination was moderately protective against hospitalisation with influenza in the 2010 and 2011 seasons.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68760. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of H1N1/09 containing influenza vaccines against hospitalization from influenza in Australia. We performed a test-negative case control study in patients hospitalized in 15 sentinel Australian hospitals between March and November 2010, comparing influenza vaccination (H1N1/09 monovalent or 2010 seasonal trivalent) in hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed influenza compared to PCR-negative controls. Between March and November 2010, 1169 hospitalized patients were tested for suspected influenza, of which influenza vaccine status was ascertained in 165/238 patients with H1N1/09 influenza, 40/64 with seasonal influenza and 558/867 test negative controls; 24% of H1N1/09 cases, 43% of seasonal influenza cases and 54% of controls were vaccinated. VE against hospitalisation with H1N1/09 influenza after adjusting for age, medical comorbidities and pregnancy status was estimated at 49% (95% CI: 13%, 70%). Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduction in hospitalisation caused by H1N1/09 influenza in the 2010 southern hemisphere winter season.