[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of surgical rib fixation (SRF) in a treatment protocol for severe blunt chest trauma.
Patients with flail chest admitted between September 2009 and June 2010 to our level I trauma center who failed traditional management and underwent SRF were matched with an historical group. Outcome variables evaluated include age, injury severity score, intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, ventilator days, total number of rib fractures, and total number of segmental rib fractures.
The 2 groups were similar in age, injury severity score, intensive care unit LOS, hospital LOS, total number of rib fractures, and total segmental rib fractures. The operative group demonstrated a significant reduction in total ventilator days as compared with the nonsurgical group (4.5 [0-30] vs 16.0 [4-40]; P = .040). Patients with SRF were permanently liberated from the ventilator within a median of 1.5 days (0-8 days).
Surgical rib fixation resulted in a significant decrease in ventilator days and may represent a novel approach to decreasing morbidity in flail chest patients when used as a rescue therapy in patients with declining pulmonary status. Larger studies are required to further identify these benefits.
Journal of critical care 09/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify predictive factors resulting in glucose values greater than 200 mg/dL in patients with trauma transitioned from an insulin infusion to a basal-bolus subcutaneous insulin regimen.
Thirty-nine patients with trauma on goal enteral nutrition in the intensive care unit receiving an insulin infusion for at least 48 hours and transitioned to a basal-bolus regimen were retrospectively identified.
Ten patients had hyperglycemic events after transition. Hyperglycemia was significantly associated with increased age (42  years vs 56  years, P = .02), admission glucose (128  mg/dL vs 214  mg/dL, P = .015), and insulin drip rate 48 hours before transition (87  units/d vs 127  units/d, P = .012). There was no difference between groups with respect to injury severity, demographics, or physiologic parameters. Multiple regression analysis revealed that increased age (odds ratio [OR], 1.215 [1.000-1.477]; P =.05), increased admission blood glucose (OR, 1.053 [1.006-1.101]; P =.025), and higher insulin infusion rates 48 hours before transition (OR, 1.061 [1.009-1.116]; P =.020) predisposed patients to severe hyperglycemic episodes.
Older patients with trauma and patients with higher blood glucose on admission are more likely to experience severe hyperglycemia when transitioned to basal-bolus glucose control. Higher insulin infusion rates at 48 hours before transition are also associated with severe hyperglycemia.
Journal of critical care 07/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Discharging patients from the intensive care unit (ICU) often requires complex decision making to balance patient needs with available resources. Unplanned return to the ICU ("bounce back" [BB]) has been associated with increased resource use and worse outcomes, but few data on trauma patients are available. The goal of this study was to review ICU BB and define ICU discharge variables that may be predictive of BB.
Adults admitted to ICU and discharged alive to a ward from November 04, 2012, to September 9, 2012 (interval with no changes in coverage), were selected from our trauma registry. Patients with unplanned return to ICU (BB cases) were matched 1:2 with controls on age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and duration of post-ICU stay. Data were collected by chart review then analyzed with univariate and conditional multivariate techniques.
Of 8,835 hospital admissions, 1,971 (22.3%) were discharged alive from ICU to a ward. Eighty-eight patients (4.5%) met our criteria for BB (male, 75%; mean [SD] age, 52.9 [21.9] years; mean [SD] ISS, 23.1 [10.2]). Most (71.6%) occurred within 72 hours. Mortality for BB cases was high (19.3%). Regression analysis showed that male sex (odds ratio, 2.9; p = 0.01), Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score of less than 9 (odds ratio, 22.3; p < 0.01), discharge during day shift (odds ratio, 6.9; p < 0.0001), and presence of one (odds ratio, 3.5; p = 0.03), two (odds ratio, 3.8; p = 0.03), or three or more comorbidities (odds ratio, 8.4; p < 0.001) were predictive of BB.
In this study, BB rate was 4.8%, and associated mortality was 19.3%. At the time of ICU discharge, male sex, a GCS score of less than 9, higher FIO2, discharge on day shift, and presence of one or more comorbidities were the strongest predictors of BB. A multi-institutional study is needed to validate and extend these results.
Epidemiologic/prognostic study, level IV.
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 06/2013; 74(6):1528-33.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Timing and type of chemoprophylaxis (CP) that should be used in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains unclear. We reviewed our institutions experience with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in TBI.
The charts of all TBI patients with a head abbreviated injury severity score >2 (HAIS) and an intensive care unit length of stay >48 hours admitted during a 42-month period between 2006 and 2009 were reviewed. CP was initiated after intracranial hemorrhage was considered stable. We reviewed all operative notes and radiologic reports in these patients to analyze the rate of significant intracranial hemorrhagic complications, deep venous thrombosis, or pulmonary embolus.
A total of 386 patients with TBI were identified; 158 were treated with LMWH and 171 were treated with UFH. HAIS was significantly different between the LMWH (3.8 ± 0.7) and UFH (4.1 ± 0.7) groups; the time to initiation of CP was not. The UFH group had a significantly higher rate of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus. Progression of ICH that occurred after the initiation of CP was significantly higher in the UFH-treated patients (59%) when compared with those treated with LMWH (40%). Two patients in the UFH group required craniotomy after the initiation of CP.
LMWH is an effective method of CP in patients with TBI, providing a lower rate of venous thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications when compared with UFH. A large, prospective, randomized study would better evaluate the safety and efficacy of LMWH in patients suffering blunt traumatic brain injury.
The Journal of trauma 08/2011; 71(2):396-9; discussion 399-400. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol consumption has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit setting. The purpose of our study was to assess outcomes in trauma patients admitted to our institutional university-affiliated, Level I emergency trauma unit (ETU) with and without per cent carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) elevations over a 12-week timeframe. Markers for alcohol consumption including %CDT, gamma glutamyl transferase, and serum osmolality were measured along with the standard trauma laboratory panel on arrival to the ETU. Intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), length of time requiring ventilator support, hospital LOS, total hospital charges as well as incidences of postoperative complications were collected on all patients with a LOS greater than or equal to 48 hours. Demographics between the groups were similar. Drinking histories were more significant in the elevated %CDT group (P = 0.0006). Patients with elevated %CDT had significantly longer ICU and hospital LOS (5.1 vs. 3.9, P = 0.01; 8.7 vs. 7.1 days, P = 0.0052) and ventilator days (2 vs. 1.5 days, P = 0.0286). Complications and hospital charges were similar between groups. Trauma patients presenting to the ETU with %CDT elevations appear to be at risk for longer ICU and hospital LOS.
The American surgeon 05/2010; 76(5):492-6. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence-based guidelines for managing nosocomial pneumonia were published in 2005. Subsequently, our surgical critical care service developed and implemented an adaptation of this guideline for use in our surgical trauma intensive care unit (STICU). This study examined outcomes for two STICU cohorts treated for pneumonia before and after guideline implementation.
A total of 130 charts were evaluated. The guideline cohort (GC) consisted of 65 patients with pneumonia managed by the surgical critical care service. These patients were prospectively identified for inclusion if they met specified clinical criteria for pneumonia diagnosis. The historical control cohort was identified retrospectively using ICD-9 coding. The primary outcome measure was ICU length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcome measures included overall LOS, mechanical ventilation days, mortality, and total cost of admission. The study was designed to have 80% power to detect a 1-day decrease in mean ICU LOS in a multivariable regression analysis. Descriptive differences were compared using two-sample t tests for continuous variables and chi for categorical variables.
Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between cohorts. The multivariable regression analysis indicated a mean decrease of 4.6 days, 9.5 days, and 3.9 days for ICU LOS, overall LOS, and mechanical ventilation days, respectively, in the GC, with an expected mean cost reduction per admission of $23,322 (all significant at p <or= 0.0001). There was a 5% difference in hospital mortality in favor of the GC, but this difference was not statistically significant.
The STICU pneumonia practice guideline significantly improved outcomes and cost of care.
The Journal of trauma 11/2009; 68(2):382-6. · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the procedure of choice for establishing enteral access in patients unable to take oral feedings. Serious complications are rare; however, misplaced PEGs and PEG/Jejunums can lead to hollow viscus injuries with intra-abdominal contamination and subsequent peritonitis, septicemia, and death. The presence of free intra-abdominal air is a reliable indicator of a perforated viscus and often points to a surgical emergency; however, in the case of PEGs, pneumoperitoneum without a perforated viscus, or "benign pneumoperitoneum" creates a diagnostic dilemma. To determine the incidence and clinical significance of pneumoperitoneum after PEG or PEG/Jejunum (J) we reviewed the records of 722 patients who underwent these procedures at our institution. Of 39 patients found to have free air after PEG/PEG/J placement, 33 (85%) had "benign pneumoperitoneum" and were discharged without complication or surgical intervention. Of the six patients with serious complications related to their procedure, five (83%) had clinical signs of intra-abdominal complications (peritonitis) that helped guide their management. Of these six patients, the two receiving abdominal radiographs instead of abdominal CT scanning had a 50 per cent negative laparotomy rate. We present an algorithm for the management of patients found to have pneumoperitoneum after PEG or PEG/J placement.
The American surgeon 02/2009; 75(1):39-43. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism frequently occur after trauma and continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality in this population. Asymptomatic pulmonary emboli are also believed to be quite common, but the incidence as well as the implications of these events is unknown. This case report describes two patients whose pulmonary emboli were found incidentally on the initial trauma workup. Very little has been written concerning this issue and in this case report we review the risk factors and clinical significance of these "incidentally discovered" pulmonary emboli.
The American surgeon 01/2009; 74(12):1146-8; discussion 1149-50. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although pseudoaneurysms after penetrating extremity trauma are well described, we describe an unusual case of residual occult aortic injury after an initial attempt at repair that was recognized on postoperative imaging. Reoperation with primary resection and end-to-end repair was accomplished successfully. Because this entity is so unusual, we review strategies to avoid and recognize its occurrence. Early imaging allows early identification of aortic pseudoaneurysms should they occur, and will preclude delayed manifestation of complications, including death. Our case illustrates the utility of such postoperative scanning. Other alternatives to primary repair or interposition grafting in management of penetrating abdominal aortic trauma, such as interventional stent grafting, are discussed.
The American surgeon 04/2007; 73(3):239-42. · 0.92 Impact Factor