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Publications (2)8.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the efficacy of carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene, isolated from the plant rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), on androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. CA induced anti-proliferative effects in PC-3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, which was due to apoptotic induction as evident from flow-cytometry, DNA laddering and TUNEL assay. Apoptosis was associated with the activation of caspase-8, -9, -3 and -7, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, release of cytochrome-c and decrease in expression of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of proteins. Apoptosis was attenuated upon pretreatment with specific inhibitors of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-fmk) and caspase-9 (Z-LEHD-fmk) suggesting the involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades. Further, apoptosis resulted from the inhibition of IKK/NF-κB pathway as evident from decreased DNA binding activity, nuclear translocation of p50 and p65 and IκBα phosphorylation. The down-regulation of IKK/NF-κB was associated with inhibition of Akt phosphorylation and its kinase activity with a concomitant increase in the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. Pharmacologic inhibition of PP2A by okadaic acid and calyculin A, significantly reversed CA-mediated apoptotic events in PC-3 cells indicating that CA induced apoptosis by activation of PP2A through modulation of Akt/IKK/NF-κB pathway. In addition, CA induced apoptosis in another androgen refractory prostate cancer DU145 cells via intrinsic pathway as evidenced from the activation of caspase 3, cleavage of PARP, increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and cytochrome-c release. Carnosic acid, therefore, may have the potential for use in the prevention and/or treatment of prostate cancer.
    Apoptosis 03/2012; 17(7):735-47. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Triterpenes found in plants display a multitude of biological activities, including anti-tumor properties. The present study investigates the effect of 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA) a pentacyclic triterpenoid of the β-amyrin type, isolated from the root of Licorice (Glycyrrhizza glabra) on human breast cancer cells, MCF-7. GRA showed potent inhibitory effects on MCF-7 proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner without affecting immortalized normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). Growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells by GRA occurred through apoptosis, as evident from phosphatidyl serine externalization and DNA fragmentation. Apoptosis was primarily mediated through mitochondrial death cascade as evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9. GRA induced an increase in Bax:Bcl-2 ratio along with a significant increase in the protein level of the BH3 protein Bim. SiRNA-mediated knock down of Bim markedly attenuated GRA-mediated apoptosis. Profiling of transcriptional regulators of Bim revealed a role of Forkhead box O 3a transcription factor (FOXO3a) as judged by increased expression and nuclear translocation of FOXO3a. Silencing of FOXO3a resulted in marked attenuation in the expression of Bim as well as protection against GRA-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, GRA-induced activation and nuclear localization of FOXO3a was associated with a reduced activity of Akt kinase. These results suggest that GRA induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells via caspase activation and modulation of Akt/FOXO3a pathway.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 07/2011; 227(5):1923-31. · 4.22 Impact Factor