[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed at evaluating fungi in archives of different offices in Sari city the capital of Mazandaran, a northern province of Iran, with a particular focus on Stachybotrys chartarum.
The samples were collected from twenty archives of offices and controls (n=7) using a SKC single-stage impactor which draws air at 20L/min (100L) and impacts the sampled material onto Petri dishes containing malt extract agar (MEA) (n=22) and also cellulose agar (CA) (n=22). Surface samples were also collected by pressing a sterile cotton swab on different areas of archives and cultured on MEA and CA. The grown fungi were identified by standard mycological techniques. The counted fungal colonies were converted to CFUs per cubic meter.
In indoor air of archives, Cladosporium spp (25.1%), Aspergillus spp (22.9%) and Penicillum spp (22.9%) had the most frequencies. Stachybotrys chartarum (7.9%) was the fourth most common fungus isolated from the surface samples. Cladosporium spp had the highest total CFU concentration in indoor air of archive samples (1227/m(3)). Stachybotrys chartarum was recovered from surface collected samples of 4 archives of offices on CA. Out of the 22 rooms of archives, 45.4%, 45.4% and 9.1% had concentration level < 170 CFU/m(3), > 170 < 560 CFU/m(3) and > 560 < 1000 CFU/m(3), respectively.
The results of our study have shown the high concentration levels of airborne fungi in some archives of offices that might put the workers at risk from respiratory diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the volume of airborne fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Indoor and outdoor air of twenty cattle houses and twenty-five poultry houses were sampled using a single-stage impactor, which draws air at 20 L min-1 and impacts sampled material onto Petri plates containing malt extract agar. The plates were incubated at 30 °C for seven days, after which the resulting colonies were counted. The fungi were identified and counted microscopically and macroscopically. A total of 4,662 fungal colonies were isolated from 90 plates collected from indoor and outdoor air of cattle and poultry houses. Cladosporium (55.3 %), yeast (10.0 %), and Aspergillus (9.4 %) were the most common findings. The concentration of airborne fungi in cattle and poultry houses ranged from 10 CFU m-3 to 1700 CFU m-3 in indoor and 10 CFU m-3 to 2170 CFU m-3 in outdoor environments. Cladosporium had the highest mean indoor (424.5 CFU m-3) and outdoor (449.7 CFU m-3) air concentration in the cattle houses. In the poultry houses, the highest mean concentrations were measured for Cladosporium (551.0 CFU m-3) outdoors and yeast (440.7 CFU m-3) indoors. These levels might present an occupational risk, but threshold levels for these environments have yet to be established worldwide.
Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 09/2011; 62(3):243-8. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that can cause cryptococcosis, a life-threatening infection that mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients. The major environmental sources of C. neoformans have been shown to be soil contaminated with avian droppings. In the present study, we evaluated the isolation of C. neoformans from swallow (Hirundo rustica) excreta in two northern cities of Iran. Ninety-seven swallow droppings were evaluated and 498 yeast-like colonies were isolated and identified as Rhodotorula spp. (62.8%), Candida spp. (28.5%)and C. neoformans (8.7%). Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from 5/97 (5.2%) of collected samples. Min-Max colony forming units (CFU) per one gram for the positive samples were 3-10 C. neoformans colonies. The total mean CFU per one gram for the positive samples was 4.8. The results of this study demonstrate that excreta of swallow may harbor different species of potentially pathogenic yeasts, mainly C. neoformans, and may be capable of disseminating these fungi in the environment.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 06/2011; 53(3):125-7. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. — The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the fungal flora of tap water from university hospitals of Sari city, Iran. Materials and methods. — During a 1-year period, 240 water samples were collected from four university hospitals. All water samples were collected in sterile polystyrene bottles. A volume of 100 ml of the samples passed through sterile 0.45-micrometer filters. The filters were placed directly on malt extract agar and incubated at 27 8C for 3 to 7 days. Routine mycological techniques were applied to identification of grown fungi. Results. — Out of 240 plates, 77.5% were positive for fungal growth. Twelve different genera were identified. Aspergillus (29.7%), Cladosporium (26.7%) and Penicillium (23.9%) were the most common isolated. Among Aspergillus species, A. flavus had the highest frequency. Highest colony counts were found in autumn. Aspergillus predominated in autumn, Cladosporium in winter and spring and Penicillium in summer. Conclusion. — The results of our study showed that hospital water should be considered as a potential reservoir of fungi particularly Aspergillus.
Journal de Mycologie Médicale (2011) , 10—14. 02/2011;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectif
L’objectif de la présente enquête était d’évaluer la flore fongique de l’eau du robinet dans les hôpitaux universitaires de la ville de Sari, Iran.
Matériel et méthodes
Au cours d’une période d’un an, 240 échantillons d’eau ont été prélevés dans quatre hôpitaux universitaires. Tous les échantillons d’eau ont été prélevés dans des bouteilles en polystyrène stérile. Un volume de 100 mL des échantillons a été filtré à travers de filtres de 0,45 micromètre. Les filtres ont été placés directement sur milieu gélosé à l’extrait de malt et incubés à 27 °C pendant trois à sept jours. Des techniques de routine mycologiques ont été utilisées pour l’identification des champignons cultivés.
Sur 240 cultures, 77,5 % étaient positives pour la croissance des champignons. Douze genres différents ont été identifiés. Aspergillus (29,7 %), Cladosporium (26,7 %) et Penicillium (23,9 %) étaient les plus fréquemment isolés. Parmi les espèces d’Aspergillus, A. flavus avait la plus haute fréquence. Le nombre de colonies le plus élevé a été trouvé à l’automne. Aspergillus prédominait à l’automne, Cladosporium en hiver et au printemps et Penicillium en été.
Les résultats de notre étude ont montré que l’eau de l’hôpital doit être considérée comme un réservoir potentiel de champignons particulièrement Aspergillus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opportunistic infections caused by Non- Candida albicans . have been increasing. Traditional methods that are used to identify clinical isolates of Candida species are time-consuming and not appropriate for rapid, accurate and reliable identification. Purpose: To identify Candida spp isolated from cancer patients using PCR-restriction enzyme. Materials and ethods: Using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4, in this study, we could amplify ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA regions at both 80 clinical isolates and 3 standard strains. The PCR products were digested with two restriction enzymes M sp I and B ln I separately. Result: We successfully identified all isolated species using two restriction enzymes (M sp I , B ln I). Candida albicans was the most common species (77.5%), followed by C. glabrata (15%), C. tropicalis (5%), C . krusei (2.5%). Although the primers and enzyme had the ability to identify C . parapsilosis , C . guilliermondii , C . dubliniensis , present isolates did not include these among identified ones. Conclusion: RFLP-PCR using ITSI and ITS4 primers and restriction enzyme is a rapid, easy, reliable and also applicable method in clinical laboratory for identification of medically important Candida spp.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Opportunistic infections caused by Non-Candida albicans. have been increasing. Traditional methods that are used to identify clinical isolates of Candida species are time-consuming and not appropriate for rapid, accurate and reliable identification.
To identify Candida spp isolated from cancer patients using PCR-restriction enzyme.
Using universal primers, ITS1 and ITS4, in this study, we could amplify ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA regions at both 80 clinical isolates and 3 standard strains. The PCR products were digested with two restriction enzymes MspI and BlnI separately.
We successfully identified all isolated species using two restriction enzymes (MspI, BlnI). Candida albicans was the most common species (77.5%), followed by C. glabrata (15%), C. tropicalis (5%), C. krusei (2.5%). Although the primers and enzyme had the ability to identify C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. dubliniensis, present isolates did not include these among identified ones.
RFLP-PCR using ITSI and ITS4 primers and restriction enzyme is a rapid, easy, reliable and also applicable method in clinical laboratory for identification of medically important Candida spp.
Indian journal of medical microbiology 01/2010; 28(2):147-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objective: Fungal contamination of various foodstuffs and agricultural commodities is a major problem in the developing countries; therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the mycoflora of pistachio and peanuts from retailers and dried fruit retail shops of Sari, Iran. Materials and methods: A total number of 100 peanut and pistachio kernel samples in two consumption forms (dry roasted and raw) were collected from retailers and dried fruit retail shops in Sari city. Samples were analyzed for the presence of fungi by culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar media. Results: Fungi were detected in almost 70% of the samples. The genus Aspergillus was the most predominant isolate from peanut (70.5%) and pistachio (62.7%) kernel samples. Among the species of Aspergillus, A. flavus was the most frequently isolated species in the collected samples. A. flavus also had the highest contamination mean value in dry roasted and raw form of peanut and pistachio kernels. Conclusion: Because of the isolation of high percentage of A. flavus as the main aflatoxins producer in nature we recommend also the need of good storage practices in order to prevent the occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and pistachio. Introduction Pistachio and peanut kernels are nuts the most consumed in Iran. In addition, according to FAO statistics (2004), Iran is the number one exporter of pistachios in recent years and Iranian pistachios have been exported to many countries . Peanuts are used in the fabrication of sweets, candies and pastes and mainly as a raw material in oil production. Peanut kernels have also human consumption in dry roasted form in Iran, especially by children. These kernels are usually contaminated by a range of different fungi during growth, harvesting and storage. Contamination of nut seeds by fungi and their toxic metabolites is a serious problem as it has adverse effects on human health
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology 01/2010; 3(3):114-120. · 0.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the distribution of Aspergillus spp. in outdoor and indoor air of asthmatic patients' houses, as well as a review on the health effects of exposure to indoor Aspergillus. Open plates containing malt extract agar media were used to isolate fungi from the indoor (n = 360) and outdoor (n = 180) air of 90 asthmatic patients' houses living in Sari City, Iran. Plates were incubated at room temperature for 7-14 days. Cultured Aspergillus spp. were identified by standard mycological techniques. All culture plates grew fungi, a testament to the ubiquitous nature of fungal exposure. Cladosporium spp. (29.2%), Aspergillus spp. (19.0%), and Penicillium spp. (18.3%) were most common inside the houses while Cladosporium spp. (44.5%), Aspergillus spp. (12.4%), and Alternaria spp. (11.1%) were most common outside the houses. Aspergillus flavus (30.1%) and A. fumigatus (23.1%) are the most commonly isolated species in indoor air. Aspergillus flavus (44.5%) and A. fumigatus (42.6%) were the most prevalent Aspergillus spp. outside. The most colony numbers of Aspergillus were isolated from kitchens (30.4%) and the least from bedrooms (21.1%). Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species in all sampled rooms except in the kitchen where A. fumigatus was the most common. Aspergillus flavus is the most prevalent species among the Aspergillus spp. in the indoor and outdoor of a warm climate area. In these areas, A. flavus can be a major source of allergen in the air. Therefore, minimizing indoor fungal exposure could play an important role in reducing allergic symptoms in susceptible persons.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 09/2009; 168(1-4):481-7. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AbstractBackground and purpose: Asthma is a chronic disease that is classified in two types, Allergic and non-Allergic. In allergic type; allergens such as fungi induce asthmatic reactions. Unlike the most common allergens such as mite, pollen and chemicals, fungal spore, as an allergen is ubiquitous and present in different seasons. The aim of this study was the determine the incidence of IgE to common allergenic mold in asthmatic patients from Sari city.Materials and methods : A total of 84 asthmatic patients froms sari city were selected using sequenctial sampling method. Sera of all patients were tested for IgE total and specific IgE against Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium and Alternaria alternate using GENESIS and AlerCHEK’S Allernaria specific human IgE kit, respectively.Results : 57.14% of the patients had total IgE of more than normal range. Prevalence of specific IgE for Alternaria (20.4%) ranked the first, followed by Cladospronium (19.05%) and Aspergillus niger (1.10%). 10.71% of the patients had specific IgE to Alternaria and Cladosporium, concurrently.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in spite of high incidence of the total IgE and specific IgE against Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium in the special age group, there was no significant relation with age and sex. Most of the patients with total IgE more than normal range, were positive for specific IgE to Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 01/2006;