[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2006 WHO presented the infant and child growth charts suggested for universal application. However, major determinants for perinatal outcomes and postnatal growth are laid down during antenatal development. Accordingly, monitoring fetal growth in utero by ultrasonography is important both for clinical and scientific reasons. The currently used fetal growth references are derived mainly from North American and European population and may be inappropriate for international use, given possible variances in the growth rates of fetuses from different ethnic population groups. WHO has, therefore, made it a high priority to establish charts of optimal fetal growth that can be recommended worldwide.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 05/2014; 14(1):157. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When food is heated to high temperatures, the characteristic "browning" generates advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and other adverse outcomes. Whether dietary AGEs are absorbed and are harmful to human health remains highly controversial. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a diet high or low in AGEs on endothelial function, circulating AGEs, inflammatory mediators, and circulating receptors for AGEs in healthy adults. A randomized, parallel-arm, controlled dietary intervention was conducted for 6 wk with 24 healthy adults, aged 50-69 y, that compared isocaloric, food-equivalent diets that were prepared at either high or mild temperatures. Peripheral arterial tonometry, serum and urine carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, vascular adhesion molecule-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α receptors I and II), soluble receptor for AGEs, and endogenous secretory receptor for AGEs were measured at baseline and after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In the low-AGE diet group, the following changed from baseline to 6 wk (mean ± SE): serum CML from 763 ± 24 to 679 ± 29 ng/mL (P = 0.03) and urine CML from 1.37 ± 1.47 to 0.77 ± 2.01 μg/mL creatinine (P = 0.02). There were no significant changes in serum and urinary CML concentrations from baseline to follow-up in the high-AGE diet group. A high- or low-AGE diet had no significant impact on peripheral arterial tonometry or any inflammatory mediators after 6 wk of dietary intervention. In healthy middle-aged to older adults, consumption of a diet high or low in AGEs for 6 wk had no impact on endothelial function and inflammatory mediators, 2 precursors of cardiovascular disease. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01402973.
Journal of Nutrition 04/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change overtime. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ∼2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ≥70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ≥70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition overtime. Conversely, for an Agebase of ≥70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults.
Journal of Nutrition 04/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative association of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with cardiometabolic risk factors between African and European Americans. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 2035 African Americans from Jackson Heart Study (JHS) and 3170 European Americans from Framingham Heart Study (FHS) who underwent computed tomography assessment of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). The FHS participants were weighted to match the age distribution of the JHS participants and the metabolic risk factors were examined by study groups in relation to VAT. RESULTS: JHS participants had higher rates of obesity, hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome than FHS participants (all p = 0.001). The associations were weaker in JHS women for VAT with blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-C, and total cholesterol (pinteraction = 0.03 to 0.001) than FHS women. In contrast, JHS men had stronger associations for VAT with high triglycerides, low HDL, and metabolic syndrome (all pinteraction = 0.001) compared to FHS men. Similar associations and gender patterns existed for SAT with most metabolic risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The relative association between VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors is weaker in JHS women compared to FHS women, whereas stronger association with triglycerides and HDL were observed in JHS men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with a lower risk for mortality, cognitive decline, and dementia. Whether adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet protects against age-related frailty is unclear. Therefore, our objective was to examine the association between a Mediterranean-style diet with the risk of frailty in community-dwelling older persons. We conducted longitudinal analyses using data from 690 community-living persons (≥65 y) who were randomly selected from a population registry in Tuscany, Italy. Participants of the Invecchiare in Chianti study of aging completed the baseline examination in 1998-2000 and were re-examined at least once over 6 y. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (scored 0-9, modeled categorically as ≤3, 4-5, and ≥6) was computed from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition FFQ previously validated in this cohort. Frailty was defined as having at least 2 of the following criteria: poor muscle strength, feeling of exhaustion, low walking speed, and low physical activity. After a 6-y follow-up, higher adherence (score ≥6) to a Mediterranean-style diet was associated with lower odds of developing frailty [OR = 0.30 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.66)] compared with those with lower adherence (score ≤3). A higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet at baseline was also associated with a lower risk of low physical activity (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.96) and low walking speed [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.86)] but not with feelings of exhaustion and poor muscle strength. In community-dwelling older adults, higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was inversely associated with the development of frailty.
Journal of Nutrition 10/2012; · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To provide a better understanding of dietary intakes of pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Systematic review was performed to identify relevant studies which reported nutrient intakes or food consumption of pregnant women in developing countries. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were compared by region and the FAO/WHO Estimated Average Requirements. Food consumption was summarized by region. SETTING: Developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean and Central/South America. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women in the second or third trimester of their pregnancies. RESULTS: From a total of 1499 retrieved articles, sixty-two relevant studies were analysed. The ranges of mean/median intakes of energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate were relatively higher in women residing in the Caribbean and Central/South America than in Africa and Asia. Percentages of energy from carbohydrate and fat varied inversely across studies in all regions, whereas percentage of energy from protein was relatively stable. Among selected micronutrients, folate and Fe intakes were most frequently below the Estimated Average Requirements, followed by Ca and Zn. Usual dietary patterns were heavily cereal based across regions. CONCLUSIONS: Imbalanced macronutrients, inadequate micronutrient intakes and predominantly plant-based diets were common features of the diet of pregnant women in developing countries. Cohesive public health efforts involving improving access to nutrient-rich local foods, micronutrient supplementation and fortification are needed to improve the nutrition of pregnant women in developing countries.
Public Health Nutrition 10/2012; · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary behavior is an important lifestyle factor to impact an individual's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the influence of specific dietary factors on CVD risk for African Americans remains unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1775 participants from Jackson Heart Study (JHS) Exam 2 (between 2006and 2009) who were free of hypertension, diabetes and CVD at the baseline (between 2001 and 2004). Dietary intakes were documented using a validated food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis.Three major dietary patterns were identified: a "southern", a "fast food" and a "prudent" pattern. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking and alcohol status, education level and physical activity, high "southern" pattern score was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for high abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) (OR:1.80, 95%CI:1.1-3.0, p=0.02), hypertension (OR:1.42, 95%CI:1.1-1.9, p=0.02), diabetes (OR:2.03, 95%CI:1.1-3.9, p=0.03) and metabolic syndrome (OR:2.16, 95%CI:1.3-3.6, p=0.004). Similar associations were also observed in the "fast food" pattern (p ranges 0.03-0.0001). The "prudent" pattern was significantly associated, in a protective direction, with hypertension (OR 0.69, 95%CI 0.5-0.9, p=0.02). In conclusion, dietary patterns, especially the "southern" pattern, identified from a regional specific FFQ in this Deep South African Americans, are correlated with abdominal VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deterioration in pulmonary function is associated with greater disability and mortality in older adults. Dietary antioxidants are implicated in lung health, but the relationship between major dietary antioxidants, such as serum carotenoids, and pulmonary function have not been well characterized. Serum carotenoids are considered the most reliable indicator of fruit and vegetable intake.
We examined the relationship between serum α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene with pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) in a population-based sample of 631 moderately to severely disabled community-dwelling older women (Women's Health and Aging Study I) in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Higher serum α-carotene and β-carotene concentrations were positively associated with both FEV1 and FVC, respectively (all P < 0.05), in separate multivariate linear regression models adjusting for age, race, education, cognition, anemia, inflammation, and chronic diseases. Total serum carotenoids were associated with FEV1 (P = 0.08) and FVC (P = 0.06), respectively, in similar models. No association was found between β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and FEV1 or FVC.
Higher serum α-carotene and β-carotene concentrations, which reflect greater intake of orange and dark green leafy fruits and vegetables, were associated with better pulmonary function among older community-dwelling women.function may lead to food avoidance and to a higher incidence of digestive complaints.
The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 01/2012; 16(4):291-6. · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major sources of flavonoids were identified, and mean intakes over several decades were reported, among 1638 participants (mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 y), of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). Dietary data were collected using 7-day diet records during three time periods (1980s, 1990s and 2000-present), and the USDA flavonoid, proanthocyanidin and isoflavone databases were used to estimate dietary flavonoid intakes. Dietary intake data were divided according to decade of visit. Foods were matched with appropriate foods in the USDA databases. Mixed dishes were disaggregated to individual foods and a similar procedure was followed. Total flavonoids and five sub-classes of flavonoids, including flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins, were computed by summing appropriate compounds. The median intakes of flavonoids and the contributions of various foods to intakes were calculated by decade. Age and sex adjusted mean (SE) daily intakes of flavonoids increased from 250 (7.4) in the 1980s to 280 (9.9) mg in the 2000s. Top contributors of flavonoids were tea, apple/pear (and juices), citrus fruits (and juices), peaches, plums, grapes, nectarines (and juices) and chocolate. The data show an increase in the consumption of flavonoids over the three decades, which appears to be related to intake of fruit.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 12/2011; 24(8):1103-1109. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, diabetes and kidney disease. The objective was to describe dietary intake, the dominant source of exposure to AGEs, with carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), a major AGE, in serum and urine, respectively.
Serum and urinary CML were measured in 261 adults, aged 21-69 years, and compared with diet as assessed by six separate 24-h dietary recalls.
Median (25th, 75th percentile) serum and urinary CML concentrations were 686 (598, 803) μg/l and 1023 (812, 1238) μg/gm creatinine. There was no correlation between serum and urinary CML (r=-0.02, P=0.78). Serum CML was positively correlated with intake of soy, fruit juice, cold breakfast cereal, non-fat milk, whole grains, fruit, non-starchy vegetables and legumes, and negatively correlated with intake of red meat. Intake of fast food was not significantly correlated with serum CML. Urinary CML was positively correlated with intake of starchy vegetables, whole grains, sweets, nuts/seeds and chicken, and negatively correlated with intake of fast foods. Intake of AGE-rich foods such as fried chicken, French fries, bacon/sausage and crispy snacks were not significantly correlated with serum or urinary CML, except for a significant negative correlation between fried chicken and serum CML.
These findings suggest that the high consumption of foods considered high in CML is not a major determinant of either serum or urinary CML. Further work is needed to understand the relationship of AGEs in blood and urine with the metabolism of dietary AGEs.
European journal of clinical nutrition 07/2011; 66(1):3-9. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet has positive effects on mobility assessed over a 9-year follow-up in a representative sample of older adults. This research is part of the InCHIANTI Study, a prospective population-based study of older persons in Tuscany, Italy. The sample for this analysis included 935 women and men aged 65 years and older. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed at baseline by the standard 10-unit Mediterranean diet score (MDS). Lower extremity function was measured at baseline, and at the 3-, 6- and 9-year follow-up visits using the short physical performance battery (SPPB). At baseline, higher adherence to Mediterranean diet was associated with better lower body performance. Participants with higher adherence experienced less decline in SPPB score, which was of 0.9 points higher (p<.0001) at the 3-year-follow, 1.1 points higher (p=0.0004) at the 6-year follow-up and 0.9 points higher (p=0.04) at the 9-year follow-up compared to those with lower adherence. Among participants free of mobility disability at baseline, those with higher adherence had a lower risk (HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.51-0.98, p=0.04) of developing new mobility disability. High adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet is associated with a slower decline of mobility over time in community-dwelling older persons. If replicated, this observation is highly relevant in terms of public health.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Total antioxidant performance (TAP) measures antioxidant capacities in both hydrophilic and lipophilic compartments of serum and interactions known to exist between them. Our objective was to assess TAP levels in a subset of Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants and to examine associations with dietary and total (diet + supplement) intakes of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol (diet only), beta-carotene, vitamin C, fruit, vegetables, and nuts, and serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and beta-carotene. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 420 (mean age 61 y; 254 women) African American men and women participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the JHS in Jackson, Mississippi. In multivariate-adjusted models, we observed positive associations between total alpha-tocopherol, total and dietary beta-carotene, and total vitamin C intakes and TAP levels (P-trend < 0.05). Positive associations were also observed for vegetable, fruit, and total fruit and vegetable intakes (P-trend < 0.05). For serum antioxidant nutrients, alpha-tocopherol but not beta-carotene was associated with serum TAP levels. There were inverse associations for serum gamma-tocopherol and TAP levels. Associations for alpha-tocopherol were seen at intake levels much higher than the current Recommended Dietary Allowance. It may, therefore, be prudent to focus on increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts, and seeds to increase total antioxidant capacity.
Journal of Nutrition 09/2009; 139(10):1964-71. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the relative validity of two food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) developed for use in investigating diet and disease relationships within the adult African-American population in the southern United States.
Cross-sectional analyses of dietary nutrient intake data, comparing four 24-hour dietary recalls with an FFQ developed by the Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative, and its shorter version adapted for use in the Jackson Heart Study.
A representative subset of participants (n=499, aged 35 to 81 years) from the baseline Jackson Heart Study cohort (N=5,302) was selected for this study. Data collection took place between winter 2000 and spring 2004.
Pearson's correlation coefficients (energy adjusted and de-attenuated) for 26 nutrients estimates from each of the FFQs, comparing them with the mean of four 24-hour dietary recalls. The ability of the FFQs to rank individuals based on nutrient intakes was compared to that of the mean of four 24-hour dietary recalls and attenuation coefficients were also calculated.
Median nutrient intake estimates tended to be higher on the long and lower on the short FFQ compared to the median for the mean of four 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy adjusted and deattenuated correlations of FFQ intake estimates with recalls ranged from 0.20 for sodium to 0.70 for carbohydrate for the short FFQ and from 0.23 for polyunsaturated fat to 0.75 for dietary fiber and magnesium for the long. Attenuation coefficients for men on average were 0.42 for the short and 0.49 for the long FFQ. For women, these were 0.31 for the short and 0.42 for the long FFQ.
Both FFQs appear to be reasonably valid for assessment of dietary intake of adult African Americans in the South. The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Initiative FFQ exhibited higher intake estimates and stronger correlations with recalls than the Jackson Heart Study FFQ for most nutrients analyzed, more so for women than men.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 08/2009; 109(7):1184-1193. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intakes and biochemical concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols have been associated with chronic diseases.
To describe dietary patterns in Jackson Heart Study participants and to determine if biochemical measurements of antioxidants differ across these.
Cross-sectional analysis of data for 373 African-American men and women (age 35 to 80 years), participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Substudy of the Jackson Heart Study.
Dietary intake was assessed with a region specific food frequency questionnaire. Patterns were defined by cluster analysis of food groups, as percent of energy intake.
Four dietary patterns were identified: fast food, Southern, prudent, and juice. Individuals in the fast-food pattern (n=153) had significantly lower serum concentrations of lutein plus zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin; those in the Southern cluster (n=99) had significantly lower serum alpha-carotene; and those in the prudent (n=63) and juice (n=58) clusters had significantly higher serum alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin (P<0.05) relative to those in at least one other cluster (all P<0.05). The juice cluster also had higher serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations relative to the fast-food cluster.
Diets high in fast foods, snacks, soft drinks, and meat were associated with relatively low concentrations of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol. This pattern contained the largest number of participants, and could contribute to the extensive health disparities seen in this region.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 01/2009; 108(12):2013-20. · 3.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report on dietary food sources of carotenoids in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants.
Cross-sectional analysis of data for 402 African American men and women participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS) of the JHS.
Mean serum carotenoid concentrations and intakes in this population were comparable to those reported for the general US population. After adjustment for covariates, correlations between serum and dietary measures of each carotenoid, for the average of the recalls (deattenuated), the short FFQ and the long FFQ, respectively, were: 035 and 0-carotene; 026 and 0-carotene; 017 and 0-carotene; 034 and 0-cryptoxanthin; 015 and 037, 014 for lycopene. Major dietary sources of -carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin, mustard, turnip and collard greens; of beta-cryptoxanthin, orange juice; and of lycopene, tomato juice.
On average, carotenoid intakes and serum concentrations are not lower in this southern African American population than the general US population. The two regional FFQs developed for a southern US population and used as dietary assessment tools in the JHS appear to provide reasonably valid information for most of these carotenoids.
Public Health Nutrition 01/2008; 11(10):989-97. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet + supplement) intake of alpha-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not gamma-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum gamma-tocopherol. For delta-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of delta-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for alpha-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher alpha- but lower gamma-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study.
Journal of Nutrition 11/2007; 137(10):2297-303. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carotenoids have been linked with protective roles against diseases associated with aging, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and age-related macular degeneration. With data from a semiquantitative, validated FFQ, we examined carotenoid intake of 340 Puerto Ricans, 98 Dominicans, and 146 non-Hispanic whites (>60 y old) in Massachusetts. Compared with non-Hispanic white men, Hispanic men reported a higher intake of lycopene and lower intakes of alpha-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, beta-carotene (from diet only), and total beta-carotene (diet and supplements) (P < 0.001). Hispanic women reported higher intakes of beta-cryptoxanthin and lycopene but lower intakes of lutein + zeaxanthin (P < 0.001) than non-Hispanic white women. The frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables was higher among Hispanic women, relative to non-Hispanic white women (P < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of alpha-carotene and lycopene were higher in Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white men and women. For both ethnic groups, higher intakes of carotenoids were associated with higher plasma concentrations of the respective carotenoids, except for lycopene (Hispanics) and lutein + zeaxanthin (non-Hispanic whites). Food sources contributing most to total intakes differed among the groups. The major sources of alpha- and beta-carotene were carrots for non-Hispanic whites and winter squash for Hispanics. The major source of lycopene was cooked tomato products for Hispanics, and pasta dishes for non-Hispanic whites. Traditional foods such as beans and plantains were also important contributors of carotenoids for Hispanics. Because of the potential importance of carotenoids as protective factors against chronic diseases, more attention to food-related practices associated with carotenoid intake in differing population groups is warranted.
Journal of Nutrition 06/2005; 135(6):1496-502. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet 1 supplement) intake of a-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not g-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum g-tocopherol. For d-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of a- and g-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of d-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for a-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher a- but lower g-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study. J. Nutr. 137: 2297-2303, 2007.