[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newly discovered IL-9-producing CD4(+) helper T cells (Th9 cells) have been reported to contribute to tissue inflammation and immune responses, however, differentiation and immune regulation of Th9 cells in tuberculosis remain unknown. In the present study, our data showed that increased Th9 cells with the phenotype of effector memory cells were found to be in tuberculous pleural effusion as compared with blood. TGF-β was essential for Th9 cell differentiation from naïve CD4(+) T cells stimulated with PMA and ionomycin in vitro for 5 h, and addition of IL-1β, IL-4 or IL-6 further augmented Th9 cell differentiation. Tuberculous pleural effusion and supernatants of cultured pleural mesothelial cells were chemotactic for Th9 cells, and this activity was partly blocked by anti-CCL20 antibody. IL-9 promoted the pleural mesothelial cell repairing and inhibited IFN-γ-induced pleural mesothelial cell apoptosis. Moreover, pleural mesothelial cells promoted Th9 cell differentiation by presenting antigen. Collectively, these data provide new information concerning Th9 cells, in particular the collaborative immune regulation between Th9 cells and pleural mesothelial cells in human M. tuberculosis infection. In particular, pleural mesothelial cells were able to function as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate Th9 cell differentiation.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31710. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of interleukin (IL)-27 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural IL-27. The concentrations of IL-27 were determined in pleural fluids and sera from 68 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion, 63 malignant pleural effusion, 22 infectious pleural effusion, and 21 transudative pleural effusion. Flow cytometry was used to identify which pleural cell types expressed IL-27. It was found that the concentrations of pleural IL-27 in tuberculous group were significantly higher than those in malignant, infectious, and transudative groups, respectively. Pleural CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and mesothelial cells might be the cell sources for IL-27. IL-27 levels could be used for diagnostic purpose for tuberculous pleural effusion, with the cut off value of 1,007 ng/L, IL-27 had a sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 99.1% for differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from non-tuberculous pleural effusions. Therefore, compared to non-tuberculous pleural effusions, IL-27 appeared to be increased in tuberculous pleural effusion. IL-27 in pleural fluid is a sensitive and specific biomarker for the differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from pleural effusions with the other causes.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40450. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IL-22-producing helper T cells (Th22 cells) have been reported to be involved in tuberculosis infection. However, differentiation and immune regulation of Th22 cells in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) remain unknown.
To elucidate the mechanism by which Th22 cells differentiate and recruit into the pleural space.
The distribution and phenotypic features of Th22 cells in both TPE and blood were determined. The impacts of proinflammatory cytokines and antigen presentation by pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) on Th22-cell differentiation were explored. The chemoattractant activity of chemokines produced by PMCs for Th22 cells was observed.
Th22 cells were significantly higher in TPE than in blood. IL-1β, IL-6, and/or tumor necrosis factor-α promoted Th22-cell differentiation from CD4(+) T cells. It was found that PMCs expressed CCL20, CCL22, and CCL27, and that TPE and PMC supernatants were chemotactic for Th22 cells. This activity was partly blocked by anti-CCL20, anti-CCL22, and anti-CCL27 antibodies. IL-22 and IL-17 significantly improved PMC wound healing. Moreover, PMCs were able to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and Th22-cell differentiation by presenting tuberculosis-specific antigen.
The overrepresentation of Th22 cells in TPE may be due to pleural cytokines and to PMC-produced chemokines. Our data suggest a collaborative loop between PMCs and Th22 cells in TPE. In particular, PMCs were able to function as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and Th22-cell differentiation.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2011; 185(6):660-9. · 11.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both T helper interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells (Th17 cells) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been found to be increased in human tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE); however, the possible interaction between Th17 cells and Tregs in TPE remains to be elucidated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the distribution of Th17 cells in relation to Tregs, as well as the mechanism of Tregs in regulating generation and differentiation of Th17 cells in TPE. In the present study, the numbers of Th17 cells and Tregs in TPE and blood were determined by flow cytometry. The regulation and mechanism of CD39(+) Tregs on generation and differentiation of Th17 cells were explored. Our data demonstrated that the numbers of Th17 cells and CD39(+) Tregs were both increased in TPE compared with blood. Th17 cell numbers were correlated negatively with Tregs in TPE but not in blood. When naïve CD4(+) T cells were cultured with CD39(+) Tregs, Th17 cell numbers decreased as CD39(+) Treg numbers increased, and the addition of the anti-latency-associated peptide monoclonal antibody to the coculture reversed the inhibitory effect exerted by CD39(+) Tregs. This study shows that Th17/Treg imbalance exists in TPE and that pleural CD39(+) Tregs inhibit generation and differentiation of Th17 cells via a latency-associated peptide-dependent mechanism.