[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is the most commonly used free flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. However, despite excellent results with respect to the site of reconstruction, donor site morbidity cannot be neglected. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and analyzes the level of evidence with regard to perioperative management of the reduction of RFFF donor site morbidity. Methods: The medical Internet source PubMed was screened for relevant articles. All relevant articles were tabulated according to the levels of scientific evidence, and the available methods for reduction of donor site morbidity are discussed. Results: Classification into levels of evidence reveals 3 publications (1.5%) with level I (randomized controlled trials), 29 (14.0%) with level II (experimental studies with no randomization, cohort studies, or outcome research), 3 (1.5%) with level III (systematic review of case-control studies or individual case-control studies), 121 (58.7%) with level IV (nonexperimental studies, such as cross-sectional trials, case series, case reports), and 15 (7.3%) with level V (narrative review or expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal). Thirty-five (17.0%) articles could not be classified, because they focused on a topic other than donor site morbidity of the RFFF. Conclusions: Although great interest has been expressed with regard to reducing the donor site morbidity of the workhorse flap in microvascular reconstruction procedures, most publications fail to provide the hard facts and solid evidence characteristic of high-quality research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) defend epithelial surfaces against pathological micro-organisms. We know of no comparison of their expression between the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium, but knowledge of differences in their quantities is of interest, possibly as a starting point for new treatments. Expression of AMP human beta-defensin (hBD)-1/-2/-3 and psoriasin in the oral mucosa and extraoral epithelium of the head and neck were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (n = 14), immunohistochemistry (n = 6), and western blot (n = 8). RT-PCR showed that all the genes investigated were expressed significantly more in the oral mucosa than in the skin (hBD-1: p = 0.002; hBD-2: p = 0.006; hBD-3: p = 0.035; psoriasin: p = 0.02). Immunohistochemistry and western blot showed differential concentrations of proteins: hBD-2 (p = 0.021) and hBD-3 (p = 0.043) were pronounced in the oral mucosa, whereas psoriasin was raised in the extraoral skin (p = 0.021). There was no difference in protein concentrations for hBD-1 (p = 0.08). The observed differences in the expression of AMP may be important for new treatments such as topical application of AMP derivatives.
British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 08/2011; 50(5):447-453. · 2.72 Impact Factor