[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroendocytosis (EED) is a pulsed-electric-field (PEF) induced endocytosis, facilitating cells uptake molecules through nanometer-sized EED vesicles. We herein investigate the effect of a chemical inhibitor, Cytochalasin D (CD) on the actin-filaments (F-Actin) behavior of single-cell EED. The CD concentration (CCD) can control the depolymerization of F-actin. A multi-chamber micro cell chip was fabricated to study the EED under different conditions. Large-scale single-cell data demonstrated EED highly depends on both electric field and CCD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electroendocytosis (EED), i.e. electric field-induced endocytosis, is a technique for bio-molecule and drug delivery to cells using a pulsed electric field lower than that applied in electroporation (EP). Different from EP in which nanometer-sized electropores appear on the plasma membrane lipid bilayer, EED induces cell membrane internalization and fission via endocytotic vesicles. In this study, we conduct comprehensive experimental study on the EED of HeLa cells using a micro chip and the corresponding endocytotic vesicles were visualized and investigated by using FM4-64 fluorescent dye and in situ fluorescence microscopy. The uptake of molecules by the EED of cells was characterized by average intracellular fluorescent intensity from a large number (>2,000) of single cells. The EED efficiency was determined as a function of three electric parameters (electric field strength, pulse duration, total electric treatment time). The EED efficiency as a function of electric field strength clearly shows biphasic characteristics at different experimental conditions. The EED experiments using cytoskeleton inhibitors illustrate unique mechanisms distinct from EP. This study provides a foundation for further on-chip study of the time-dependent mechanism of EED at the single-cell level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, a micro electroendocytosis (EED) device was fabricated by MEMS technology to investigate the EED of mammalian cells. The corresponding endocytotic vesicles at the single-cell level were visualized using digital fluorescence video microscopy. The EED process under different electrical and biological parameters was studied in detail. The critical EED electric field strength for the HeLa cells using FM4-64 dye was determined to be 341.9plusmn24.2 V/cm. Beyond the critical electric field, the EED efficiency increased dramatically without significantly reducing cell viability. In addition, the EED efficiency as a function of multiple electric parameters were readily obtained based on large-scale micro EED experiments.