Paula M Bruno

Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

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Publications (11)16.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to understand the ventilatory and physiological responses immediately below and above the maximal lactate steady state velocity (MLSS) and to determine the relationship of oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) kinetics parameters to performance, in swimmers. Competitive athletes (N = 12) completed in random order and different days a 400-m all-out test, an incremental step test comprising by 5 x 250 and 1 x 200-m stages and 30-min at constant swimming velocity at 87.5, 90 and 92.5% of maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) for MLSS velocity (MLSSv) determination. Two square wave transitions of 500-m, 2.5% above and below MLSSv were completed to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O2 on-kinetics. End-exercise V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at 97.5% and 102.5% of MLSSv represented, respectively, 81% and 97% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, the latter was not significantly different from maximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). V[Combining Dot Above]O2 at MLSSv (49.3 ± 9.2 ml.kg.min) was not significantly different from the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) (51.3 ± 7.6 ml.kg.min). MLSSv seems to be accurately estimated by the swimming velocity at VT2 (vVT2) and vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max also seems to be estimated with accuracy from the central 300-m mean velocity of a 400-m trial, indicators that represent a helpful tool for coaches. 400-m swimming performance (T400) was correlated with the time constant of the primary phase V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics (τp) at 97.5% MLSSv and T800 was correlated with τp in both 97.5% and 102.5% of MLSSv. The assessment of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 kinetics in swimming can help coaches to build the training sets accordingly to the swimmer individual physiological response.
    Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Liver transplantation is nowadays the only effective answer to adjourn the outcome of functional limitations associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by sensory and motor polyneuropathies. Nevertheless, there is a detrimental impact associated with the after-surgery period on the fragile physical condition of these patients. Exercise training has been proven to be effective on reconditioning patients after transplantation. However, the effects of exercise training in liver transplanted FAP patients have not been scrutinized yet. Methods. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-week exercise training program (supervised or home-based) on body composition, muscle strength, and walking capacity of liver transplanted FAP patients. To fulfill this goal, a sample corresponding to 33% of all FAP patients who undergone a liver transplantation in the area of Lisbon between January 2006 and December 2008 were followed over time. Three evaluation periods were accomplished: M1 (preexercise training period), M2 (immediate post-exercise training period), and M3 (24 weeks after M2). The former allowed an assessment of the impact of detraining in these patients. Results. The exercise training program improved body composition (lean mass and total body skeletal muscle mass), weight, and walking capacity. The improvements were more pronounced within the patients with supervised exercise training compared with the patients on the home-based program. In general, the benefits of the exercise training perdure even after a 24-week detraining period. Conclusions. Exercise training results in significant improvements on the physical condition of liver transplanted FAP patients.
    Transplantation 01/2013; 95(2):372-7. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is nowadays the only effective answer to adjourn the outcome of functional limitations associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by sensory and motor polyneuropathies. Nevertheless, there is a detrimental impact associated with the after-surgery period on the fragile physical condition of these patients. Exercise training has been proven to be effective on reconditioning patients after transplantation. However, the effects of exercise training in liver transplanted FAP patients have not been scrutinized yet. METHODS: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-week exercise training program (supervised or home-based) on body composition, muscle strength, and walking capacity of liver transplanted FAP patients. To fulfill this goal, a sample corresponding to 33% of all FAP patients who undergone a liver transplantation in the area of Lisbon between January 2006 and December 2008 were followed over time. Three evaluation periods were accomplished: M1 (pre-exercise training period), M2 (immediate post-exercise training period), and M3 (24 weeks after M2). The former allowed an assessment of the impact of detraining in these patients. RESULTS: The exercise training program improved body composition (lean mass and total body skeletal muscle mass), weight, and walking capacity. The improvements were more pronounced within the patients with supervised exercise training compared with the patients on the home-based program. In general, the benefits of the exercise training perdure even after a 24-week detraining period. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training results in significant improvements on the physical condition of liver transplanted FAP patients.
    Transplantation 12/2012; · 3.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to characterise both the VO2 kinetics within constant heavy-intensity swimming exercise, and to assess the relationships between VO2 kinetics and other parameters of aerobic fitness, in well-trained swimmers. On separate days, 21 male swimmers completed: (1) an incremental swimming test to determine their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), first ventilatory threshold (VT), and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO(2 max)) and (2) two square-wave transitions from rest to heavy-intensity exercise, to determine their VO2 kinetics. All the tests involved breath-by-breath analysis of freestyle swimming using a swimming snorkel. VO2 kinetics was modelled with two exponential functions. The mean values for the incremental test were 56.0 ± 6.0 ml min(-1) kg(-1), 1.45 ± 0.08 m s(-1); and 42.1 ± 5.7 ml min(-1) kg(-1) for VO2 max, vVO(2 max) and VT, respectively. For the square-wave transition, the time constant of the primary phase (sp) averaged 17.3 ± 5.4 s and the relevant slow component (A'sc) averaged 4.8 ± 2.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) [representing 8.9% of the end-exercise VO2 (%A'sc)]. sp was correlated with vVO(2 max) (r = -0.55, P = 0.01), but not with either VO2max (r = 0.05, ns) or VT (r = 0.14, ns). The %A' sc did not correlate with either VO2max (r = -0.14, ns) or vVO(2 max) (r = 0.06, ns), but was inversely related with VT (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). This study was the first to describe the VO2 kinetics in heavy-intensity swimming using specific swimming exercise and appropriate methods. As has been demonstrated in cycling, faster VO2 kinetics allow higher aerobic power outputs to be attained. The slow component seems to be reduced in swimmers with higher ventilatory thresholds.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 08/2011; 112(5):1689-97. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine whether V˙O(2) kinetics and specifically, the time constant of transitions from rest to heavy (τ(p)H) and severe (τ(p)S) exercise intensities, are related to middle distance swimming performance. Fourteen highly trained male swimmers (mean ± SD: 20.5 ± 3.0 yr; 75.4 ± 12.4 kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) performed an discontinuous incremental test, as well as square wave transitions for heavy and severe swimming intensities, to determine V˙O(2) kinetics parameters using two exponential functions. All the tests involved front-crawl swimming with breath-by-breath analysis using the Aquatrainer swimming snorkel. Endurance performance was recorded as the time taken to complete a 400 m freestyle swim within an official competition (T400), one month from the date of the other tests. T400 (Mean ± SD) (251.4 ± 12.4 s) was significantly correlated with τ(p)H (15.8 ± 4.8s; r=0.62; p=0.02) and τ(p)S (15.8 ± 4.7s; r=0.61; p=0.02). The best single predictor of 400 m freestyle time, out of the variables that were assessed, was the velocity at V˙O(2max)vV˙O(2max), which accounted for 80% of the variation in performance between swimmers. However, τ(p)H and V˙O(2max) were also found to influence the prediction of T400 when they were included in a regression model that involved respiratory parameters only. Faster kinetics during the primary phase of the V˙O(2) response is associated with better performance during middle-distance swimming. However, vV˙O(2max) appears to be a better predictor of T400.
    Journal of science and medicine in sport / Sports Medicine Australia. 07/2011; 15(1):58-63.
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    ABSTRACT: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to sensory and motor polyneuropathies, and functional limitations. Liver transplantation is the only treatment for FAP, requiring medication that negatively affects bone and muscle metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare body composition, levels of specific strength, level of physical disability risk, and functional capacity of transplanted FAP patients (FAPTx) with a group of healthy individuals (CON). A group of patients with 48 FAPTx (28 men, 20 women) was compared with 24 CON individuals (14 men, 10 women). Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total skeletal muscle mass (TBSMM) and skeletal muscle index (SMI) were calculated. Handgrip strength was measured for both hands as was isometric strength of quadriceps. Muscle quality (MQ) was ascertained by the ratio of strength to muscle mass. Functional capacity was assessed by the six-minute walk test. Patients with FAPTx had significantly lower functional capacity, weight, body mass index, total fat mass, TBSMM, SMI, lean mass, muscle strength, MQ, and bone mineral density. Patients with FAPTx appear to be at particularly high risk of functional disability, suggesting an important role for an early and appropriately designed rehabilitation program.
    Clinical Transplantation 03/2011; 25(4):E406-14. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a six months exercise training program on walking capacity, fatigue and health related quality of life (HRQL). Relevance: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy disease (FAP) is an autossomic neurodegenerative disease, related with systemic deposition of amyloidal fibre mainly on peripheral nervous system and mainly produced in the liver. FAP often results in severe functional limitations. Liver transplantation is used as the only therapy so far, that stop the progression of some aspects of this disease. Transplantation requires aggressive medication which impairs muscle metabolism and associated to surgery process and previous possible functional impairments, could lead to serious deconditioning. Reports of fatigue are common feature in transplanted patients. The effect of supervised or home-based exercise training programs in FAP patients after a liver transplant (FAPTX) is currently unknown. Participants: Thirty nine FAPTX subjects between 2 and 12 months post liver transplant were randomly assigned into three groups: a control group (CG) of 14 patients (11 males and 3 females, 34±10years, BMI 22.1±3.1kg/m2) without any exercise intervention; a supervised exercise training group (EG) of 8 patients (5 males and 3 females, 34±7years, BMI 20.4±4.5kg/m2) and an home-based exercise training group (HB) of 15 patients who exercised at home with a twice-monthly feed-back (4 males and 11 females, 35±5years, BMI 22.3±4.3kg/m2). Methods: EG and HB groups exercised during 6 months, 3 times a week, 1 hour of aerobic and resistance exercise at moderate intensity. Walking capacity (WCp) was assessed by 6 minutes walk test (6mwt). Fatigue levels and HRQL were assessed by Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue questionnaire (MAF) and Medical Outcome Study-36 item (SF-36) questionnaire respectively. Analysis: In order to analyse changes resulting of intervention program, a variable was created resulting from difference between post-intervention values and pre-intervention values. To analyse differences between groups, One-way Anova (or kruskall-Wallis in case of skewed data) was performed with correspondent's post-hoc tests. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: WCp expressed by body weight × walking distance was better (p<0.05) for EG but not for HB or CG. Neither groups have reported significant changes in fatigue or HRQL as result of exercise training program. Conclusions: Supervised exercise has proved to be significantly more effective than home-based exercise in improving WCp in liver transplanted FAP patients. Although not significant, HB group has presented higher values for difference in WCp than CG. This increase in WCp reflects a better functional exercise level for daily physical activities. So, it seems that clearly these patients benefit from an exercise training program. However, this exercise program has not changed fatigue levels and HRQL. Implications: The knowledge of results of home-based versus supervised exercise programs is of major importance for physical therapist intervention. In fact, a supervised program seems to be more effective in positively change walking capacity. However, since our program was not suitable to change fatigue and HRQL in FAPTx patients, other kind of prescription should be studied to objectively change these results. This knowledge will be of major importance for effective interventions of physiotherapists in transplantation and physical condition field
    Physiotherapy 01/2011; 97(S1):eS1241-eS1242. · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared the validity of reported equations as predictors of peak VO(2) in 8-10-year-old children. Participants (90 boys and girls aged 8-10 years) performed the multistage-shuttle-run-test (MSRT) and peak VO(2) was measured in field using a portable gas analyser. The equations that estimated peak VO(2) from the MSRT performance were chosen according to the age range of this study. As follows, the FITNESSGRAM reports and the equations of Leger et al. (Can J Appl Sport Sci 5: 77-84, 1988), Barnett et al. (Pediatr Exerc Sci 5:42-50, 1993), Matsuzaka et al. (Pediatr Exerc Sci 16:113-125, 2004) and Fernhall et al. (Am J Ment Retard 102:602-612, 1998) were used to estimate the peak VO(2) and compared with the directly measured value. The equation of Leger et al. (Can J Appl Sport Sci 5: 77-84, 1988) provided a mean difference (d) of 4.7 ml kg(-1) min(-1) and a 1.0 slope. The equation of Matsuzaka et al. (Pediatr Exerc Sci 16:113-125, 2004)(a) using maximal speed (MS) showed a higher d (5.4) than the remaining using total laps d (4.2). The equation of Barnett et al. (Pediatr Exerc Sci 5:42-50, 1993)(a) that includes triceps skinfold and MS showed the highest d (6.1) but the smallest range (24.1) and slope (0.6). Data from the FITNESSGRAM had the smallest d (1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), but also had the highest range between limits of agreement (28.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and a 1.2 slope. The lowest slope (0.4) and range (22.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were observed using the equation of Fernhall et al. (Am J Ment Retard 102:602-612, 1998). Log transformation of the data revealed that the equations of Matsuzaka et al. (Pediatr Exerc Sci 16:113-125, 2004)(a) (1.1*/÷1.25) and Fernhall et al. (Am J Ment Retard 102:602-612, 1998) (1.17*/÷1.25) showed the closest agreement among all, but they still yield unsatisfactory accuracy.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 11/2010; 111(5):839-49. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2010; 42.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41:137-138.
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - MED SCI SPORT EXERCISE. 01/2009; 41.