[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genotoxicity of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) was assessed in the leukocytes of archived blood specimens from U.S. Air Force personnel using the comet assay. No differences in mean comet assay measurements were found between low, moderate, and high exposure groups before or after a 4h work shift. Before the work shift, mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment increased as the concentration of benzene measured in end-exhaled breath increased, indicating that prior environmental or work-related exposures to benzene produced DNA damage. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA decreased as the pre-shift benzene concentration in breath increased. It is not clear why the decrease is occurring. Mean tail DNA and mean tail (Olive) moment decreased as the concentrations of benzene and naphthalene measured in breath immediately after the work shift increased. These inverse relationships may reflect a slower rate of absorption or a faster rate of expiration of benzene in the lung. The number of cells with highly damaged DNA increased as the concentration of urinary (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) increased. This relationship was not seen in urinary MEAA adjusted for creatinine. MEAA is a metabolite of the deicing agent 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol contained in JP-8. MEAA or a component of JP-8 correlated with MEAA may have a toxic effect on DNA.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 05/2012; 747(2):218-27. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three metabolites of 1-bromopropane (1-BP) were measured in urine samples collected from 30 workers exposed to 1-BP at two facilities making furniture seat cushions and evaluated for use as biomarkers of exposure. The mercapturic acid metabolite, N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (AcPrCys), 3-bromopropionic acid (3-BPA), and bromide ion levels (Br(-)) were quantitated for this evaluation. The high exposure group consisted of 13 workers employed as adhesive sprayers who assembled foam cushions using 1-BP containing spray adhesives and the low exposure group consisted of 17 non-sprayers, who worked in various jobs without spraying adhesives. All workers' urine voids were collected over the same 48 h period at work, and at home before bedtime, and upon awakening. Urinary AcPrCys and Br(-) levels were elevated in the sprayers compared to that of non-sprayers. Following HPLC-MS/MS analysis of mercapturic acid metabolite levels, 50 urine samples having the highest levels of AcPrCys were analyzed for 3-BPA. No 3-BPA was detected in any of the samples. The data collected from this study demonstrate that AcPrCys and Br(-) are effective biomarkers of 1-BP exposure, but 3-BPA is not.
Toxicology mechanisms and methods 04/2012; 22(7):526-32. · 1.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the utility of the urinary metabolite (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) as a biomarker of exposure. 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol [diethylene glycol monomethyl ether] is an anti-icing agent used in the formulation of JP-8, and it is added at a known uniform 0.1% (v/v) concentration to each batch lot. JP-8 is a kerosene-based fuel containing different compounds that vary in the content of every batch/lot of fuel; thus, MEAA has the potential to be a more specific and a consistent quantitative biomarker for JP-8 exposure.
MEAA was used to measure exposure of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) in United States Air Force (USAF) personnel working at six airbases within the United States. Post-shift urine specimens from various personnel including high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38), and low (n = 61) exposure workgroup categories were collected and analyzed by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric test method. The three exposure groups were evaluated for the number per group positive for MEAA, and a statistical analysis consisted of pair-wise t-tests for unequal variances was used to test for the differences in mean MEAA concentrations between the exposure groups.
The number of samples detected as positive for MEAA exposure, that is, those above the test method's limit of detection (LOD = 0.1 μg/ml), were 92 (93.9%), 13 (34.2%), and 2 (3.3%) for the high, moderate, and low exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The mean urinary MEAA level was significantly greater in the high exposure category (6.8 μg/ml), compared to the moderate (0.42 μg/ml) and the low (0.07 μg/ml) exposure categories. The maximum concentration of urinary MEAA was 110 μg/ml for the high exposure category, while 4.8 μg/ml and 0.2 μg/ml maximum levels were found in the moderate and low exposure categories, respectively.
This study demonstrated that urinary MEAA can be used as an accurate biomarker of exposure for JP-8 workers and clearly distinguished the differences in JP-8 exposure by workgroup category.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 08/2011; 85(4):413-20. · 2.10 Impact Factor