Publications (2)4.99 Total impact
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We reported previously that the production of IL-23 is impaired in DCs from mice that lack expression of the chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which share the receptor CCR7, suggesting that these chemokines are required for IL-23 expression. However, the molecular mechanism of CCR7-mediated IL-23 production in DCs is unknown. We found that CCL19 and CCL21 stimulated DCs through CCR7 and induced transcription of IL-23p19 mRNA and IL-23 production in splenic and BMDC. Stimulation of DCs with CCR7 ligands induced phosphorylation of MAPK family members and of Akt, but only a specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, not inhibitors of ERK, JNK, or p38, decreased IL-23p19 transcription and IL-23 production. In DCs stimulated with CCL19 or CCL21, I κ B α was degraded, and NF-κ B was translocated into the nucleus. Prevention of NF-κ B activation blocked chemokine-mediated IL-23p19 transcription. A PI3K inhibitor abolished NF-κ B activation and IL-23 production. Based on these findings, we concluded that PI3K and NF-κ B signaling pathways play a critical role in CCR7-mediated IL-23 production in murine DCs. As IL-23 contributes to Th17 cell generation, and Th17 cells are pathogenic in autoimmune diseases, precise elucidation of these mechanisms would contribute to the development of strategies to control autoimmune diseases.Journal of leukocyte biology 05/2012; 92(2):309-18. · 4.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption impairs Th1-mediated cellular immune responses and enhances serum IgE levels. It has been reported that the elevated IgE levels are associated with a Th2 polarization response, but the mechanisms for enhancing Th2 polarization by the ethanol treatment remain to be elucidated. The aim of this review is to present and discuss the mechanism of Th2 polarization response by alcohol. IL-12 production by APCs such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) preferentially leads to Th1 polarization. Acute ethanol consumption results in a significant decrease in IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated DCs and a CD40/CD40L interaction between CD40 on the DCs and CD40 ligand expressed on activated T cells. This suggests that Th2 polarization by ethanol is caused by impaired IL-12 production from APCs. In contrast, the induction of IL-10 by LPS is enhanced by ethanol treatment, suggesting that elevated IL-10 may play a role in ethanol-induced suppression of IL-12. However, ethanol inhibited IL-12 production in LPS-stimulated DCs devoid of IL-10 (IL-10/DC), suggesting that down-regulation of IL-12 by ethanol is independent of the IL-10 levels. Furthermore, several studies report that PGE2, cAMP and linolic acid, and endogenous lipid mediators released in inflammatory conditions, also inhibit IL-12 production. These inhibitory effects are similar to the IL-12 inhibition by ethanol. In addition, increase in the levels of these lipid mediators is induced by ethanol treatment. Alternatively, cytokine signaling studies indicate that IL-12 production by DCs is negatively regulated by PI3K and GSK-3, but positively regulated by p38 MAPK, mTOR, and NF-kappa B. Thus, it seems possible that ethanol may interact on the upstream of IL-12 producing a signal pathway. In fact, ethanol alters the stability of cell membrane, and suppresses clustering of TLR4 and recruitment of signaling molecules into lipid rafts, where it associates with the Ser/Thr kinase and the adaptor proteins, and forms a signaling complex. Down-regulation of lipid raft signaling is results in the impaired IL-12 production leading to the Th1 polarization, and causes CD4+ T cells to differentiation toward the Th2 lineage.Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai zasshi = Japanese journal of alcohol studies & drug dependence 06/2011; 46(3):319-36.