Michael M Altaweel

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (26)84.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To compare baseline characteristics, treatment frequency, visual acuity (VA), and morphologic outcomes of eyes with >50% of the lesion composed of blood (B50 group) versus all other eyes (Other group) enrolled in the Comparison of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).
    Ophthalmology 10/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the clinical response of patients transitioned to aflibercept, the newest anti-VEGF medication, due to persistent evidence of exudation on optical coherence tomography (OCT) despite regular treatment with bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab.
    Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging retina. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:To determine the prevalence and incidence of epiretinal membranes (ERM) in eyes with inactive extramacular cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods:A case-control report from a longitudinal multicenter observational study the Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (SOCA) Research Group.357 eyes of 270 patients with inactive CMV retinitis and 1084 eyes of 552 patients with no ocular opportunistic infection (OOI) were studied. Stereoscopic views of the posterior pole from fundus photographs were assessed at baseline and year 5 visits for the presence of the macular ERM. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression was used to compare the prevalence and 5-year incidence of ERM in eyes with and without CMV retinitis at enrollment. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was performed adjusting for possible confounders. Main outcome measures included the prevalence, incidence, estimated prevalence and incidence odds ratios. Results:The prevalence of ERM at enrollment was 14.8% (53/357) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 1.8 % (19/1084) in eyes with no OOI. The incidence of ERM at 5 years was 18.6% (16/86) in eyes with CMV retinitis vs. 2.4% (6/253) in eyes with no OOI. The crude odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] for prevalence was 9.8, [5.5 - 17.5] (p<0.01). The crude OR [95% CI] for incidence was 9.4, [3.2 - 27.9] (p<0.01). Conclusions: A history of extramacular CMV retinitis is associated with increased prevalence and incidence of ERM formation compared to eyes without ocular opportunistic infections in AIDS patients.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the 3-year incremental cost-effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide implant versus systemic therapy for the treatment of noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis. Design Randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants Patients with active or recently active intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial. Methods Data on cost and health utility during 3 years after randomization were evaluated at 6-month intervals. Analyses were stratified by disease laterality at randomization (31 unilateral vs 224 bilateral) because of the large upfront cost of the implant. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over 3 years: The ratio of the difference in cost (in United States dollars) to the change in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs of medications, surgeries, hospitalizations, and regular procedures (e.g., laboratory monitoring for systemic therapy) were included. We computed QALYs as a weighted average of EQ-5D scores over 3 years of follow-up. Results The ICER at 3 years was $297 800/QALY for bilateral disease, driven by the high cost of implant therapy (difference implant - systemic [Δ]: $16 900; P < 0.001) and the modest gains in QALYs (Δ = 0.057; P = 0.22). The probability of the ICER being cost-effective at thresholds of $50 000/QALY and $100 000/QALY was 0.003 and 0.04, respectively. The ICER for unilateral disease was more favorable, namely, $41 200/QALY at 3 years, because of a smaller difference in cost between the 2 therapies (Δ = $5300; P = 0.44) and a larger benefit in QALYs with the implant (Δ = 0.130; P = 0.12). The probability of the ICER being cost-effective at thresholds of $50 000/QALY and $100 000/QALY was 0.53 and 0.74, respectively. Conclusion Fluocinolone acetonide implant therapy was reasonably cost-effective compared with systemic therapy for individuals with unilateral intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis but not for those with bilateral disease. These results do not apply to the use of implant therapy when systemic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. Should the duration of implant effect prove to be substantially >3 years or should large changes in therapy pricing occur, the cost-effectiveness of implant versus systemic therapy would need to be reevaluated.
    Ophthalmology 01/2014; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate agreement between fluorescein angiography (FA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) results for diagnosis of macular edema in patients with uveitis. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred seventy-nine eyes with uveitis from 255 patients. METHODS: The macular status of dilated eyes with intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis was assessed via Stratus-3 OCT and FA. To evaluate agreement between the diagnostic approaches, κ statistics were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macular thickening (MT; center point thickness, ≥240 μm per reading center grading of OCT images) and macular leakage (ML; central subfield fluorescein leakage, ≥0.44 disc areas per reading center grading of FA images), and agreement between these outcomes in diagnosing macular edema. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography (90.4%) more frequently returned usable information regarding macular edema than FA (77%) or biomicroscopy (76%). Agreement in diagnosis of MT and ML (κ = 0.44) was moderate. Macular leakage was present in 40% of cases free of MT, whereas MT was present in 34% of cases without ML. Biomicroscopic evaluation for macular edema failed to detect 40% and 45% of cases of MT and ML, respectively, and diagnosed 17% and 17% of cases with macular edema that did not have MT or ML, respectively; these results may underestimate biomicroscopic errors (ophthalmologists were not explicitly masked to OCT and FA results). Among eyes free of ML, phakic eyes without cataract rarely (4%) had MT. No factors were found that effectively ruled out ML when MT was absent. CONCLUSIONS: Optical coherence tomography and FA offered only moderate agreement regarding macular edema status in uveitis cases, probably because what they measure (MT and ML) are related but nonidentical macular pathologic characteristics. Given its lower cost, greater safety, and greater likelihood of obtaining usable information, OCT may be the best initial test for evaluation of suspected macular edema. However, given that ML cannot be ruled out if MT is absent and vice versa, obtaining the second test after negative results on the first seems justified when detection of ML or MT would alter management. Given that biomicroscopic evaluation for macular edema erred frequently, ancillary testing for macular edema seems indicated when knowledge of ML or MT status would affect management. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
    Ophthalmology 09/2013; 120(9):1852-9. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To describe the evaluation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans in the Muliticenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial and report baseline OCT features of enrolled participants. Methods: Time-domain OCTs acquired by certified photographers using a standardized scan protocol were evaluated at a reading center. Accuracy of retinal thickness data was confirmed with quality evaluation, and caliper measurement of centerpoint thickness (CPT) was performed when retinal thickness data were unreliable. Morphological evaluation included cysts, subretinal fluid, epiretinal membranes (ERMs), and vitreomacular traction. Results: Of the 453 OCTs evaluated, automated retinal thickness was accurate in 69.5% of scans, caliper measurement was performed in 26%, and 4% were ungradable. Intraclass correlation was.98 for reproducibility of caliper measurement. Macular edema (centerpoint thickness ≥ 240 μm) was present in 36%. Cysts were present in 36.6% of scans and ERMs in 27.8%, predominantly central. Intergrader agreement ranged from 78 to 82% for morphological features. Conclusion: Retinal thickness data can be retrieved in a majority of OCT scans in clinical trial submissions for uveitis studies. Small cysts and ERMs involving the center are common in intermediate and posterior/panuveitis requiring systemic corticosteroid therapy.
    Ocular immunology and inflammation 11/2012; · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of macular edema on visual acuity and visual field sensitivity in uveitis. This study utilized baseline data from the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial, a randomized, parallel treatment clinical trial comparing alternative treatments for intermediate, posterior and panuveitis. 255 patients (481 eyes with uveitis) recruited at 23 subspecialty centers. Visual acuity, optical coherence tomography and Humphrey 24-2 visual field testing. Macular edema was associated with impaired visual acuity (p < 0.01). Different phenotypes of macular edema were associated with different degrees of visual impairment: cystoid changes without retinal thickening were associated with moderately impaired visual acuity (-5 ETDRS letters), but visual acuity was worse in eyes with retinal thickening (-13 letters) and with both cysts and thickening (-19 letters). Uveitis sufficient to satisfy the study's inclusion criteria was associated with impaired visual field sensitivity, but eyes with macular edema had even worse visual field sensitivity (p < 0.01). The observation that macular edema substantially reduces visual function suggests macular edema itself is an important endpoint to study in the treatment of uveitis. As uveitis and macular edema both impair visual field sensitivity as measured by Humphrey 24-2 perimetry, both should be considered when evaluating patients with uveitis and raised intraocular pressure for glaucoma.
    Ocular immunology and inflammation 04/2012; 20(3):171-81. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the prognostic performance of a 15 gene expression profiling (GEP) assay that assigns primary posterior uveal melanomas to prognostic subgroups: class 1 (low metastatic risk) and class 2 (high metastatic risk). Prospective, multicenter study. A total of 459 patients with posterior uveal melanoma were enrolled from 12 independent centers. Tumors were classified by GEP as class 1 or class 2. The first 260 samples were also analyzed for chromosome 3 status using a single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Net reclassification improvement analysis was performed to compare the prognostic accuracy of GEP with the 7th edition clinical Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) classification and chromosome 3 status. Patients were managed for their primary tumor and monitored for metastasis. The GEP assay successfully classified 446 of 459 cases (97.2%). The GEP was class 1 in 276 cases (61.9%) and class 2 in 170 cases (38.1%). Median follow-up was 17.4 months (mean, 18.0 months). Metastasis was detected in 3 class 1 cases (1.1%) and 44 class 2 cases (25.9%) (log-rank test, P<10(-14)). Although there was an association between GEP class 2 and monosomy 3 (Fisher exact test, P<0.0001), 54 of 260 tumors (20.8%) were discordant for GEP and chromosome 3 status, among which GEP demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy (log-rank test, P = 0.0001). By using multivariate Cox modeling, GEP class had a stronger independent association with metastasis than any other prognostic factor (P<0.0001). Chromosome 3 status did not contribute additional prognostic information that was independent of GEP (P = 0.2). At 3 years follow-up, the net reclassification improvement of GEP over TNM classification was 0.43 (P = 0.001) and 0.38 (P = 0.004) over chromosome 3 status. The GEP assay had a high technical success rate and was the most accurate prognostic marker among all of the factors analyzed. The GEP provided a highly significant improvement in prognostic accuracy over clinical TNM classification and chromosome 3 status. Chromosome 3 status did not provide prognostic information that was independent of GEP.
    Ophthalmology 04/2012; 119(8):1596-603. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are an important component of comparative effectiveness (CE) research because they are the optimal design for head-to-head comparisons of different treatment options. To describe decisions made in the design of the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) Trial to ensure that the results would be widely generalizable. Review of design and implementation decisions and their rationale for the trial. The MUST Trial is a multicenter randomized controlled CE trial evaluating a novel local therapy (intraocular fluocinolone acetonide implant) versus the systemic therapy standard of care for noninfectious uveitis. Decisions made in protocol design in order to broaden enrollment included allowing patients with very poor vision and media opacity to enroll and including clinical sites outside the United States. The treatment protocol was designed to follow standard care. The primary outcome, visual acuity, is important to patients and can be evaluated in all eyes with uveitis. Other outcomes include patient-reported visual function, quality of life, and disease and treatment related complications. The trial population is too small for subgroup analyses that are of interest and the trial is being conducted at tertiary medical centers. CE trials require greater emphasis on generalizability than many RCTs but otherwise face similar challenges for design choices as any RCT. The increase in heterogeneity in patients and treatment required to ensure generalizability can be balanced with a rigorous approach to implementation, outcome assessment, and statistical design. This approach requires significant resources that may limit implementation in many RCTs, especially in clinical practice settings.
    Clinical Trials 12/2011; 8(6):736-43. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify a clinically meaningful threshold for change in retinal thickness measured by optical coherence tomography for patients with uveitic macular edema using correlation with change in visual acuity. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. One hundred twenty-eight eyes (101 individuals) with macular edema enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial. At enrollment and after 6 months of follow-up, retinal thickness was measured at the central subfield with time-domain optical coherence tomography and visual acuity was measured with logarithmic (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) visual acuity charts. Participants were classified as having macular edema if the retinal thickness was 260 μm or more. A threshold for change in retinal center subfield thickness of 20% balanced the percentage of false positives and false negatives for predicting more than a 10-letter change in visual acuity with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 75%. The results were similar for more than 5-letter changes and for 15-letter or more changes. Those with a 20% or more reduction in retinal thickness had a mean 11.0-letter improvement (95% confidence interval, 7.7 to 14.3) as compared with a -0.4-letter change (95% confidence interval, -4.1 to 3.3) in visual acuity for those without a 20% reduction (P < .01). In addition to being above the level of measurement uncertainty, a 20% change in retinal thickness in patients with macular edema seems to be optimal for clinically important changes in visual acuity and may be considered as an outcome for clinical trials of treatments for uveitic macular edema.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 08/2011; 152(6):1044-1052.e5. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the relative effectiveness of systemic corticosteroids plus immunosuppression when indicated (systemic therapy) versus fluocinolone acetonide implant (implant therapy) for noninfectious intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis (uveitis). Randomized controlled parallel superiority trial. Patients with active or recently active uveitis. Participants were randomized (allocation ratio 1:1) to systemic or implant therapy at 23 centers (3 countries). Implant-assigned participants with bilateral uveitis were assigned to have each eye that warranted study treatment implanted. Treatment-outcome associations were analyzed by assigned treatment for all eyes with uveitis. Masked examiners measured the primary outcome: change in best-corrected visual acuity from baseline. Secondary outcomes included patient-reported quality of life, ophthalmologist-graded uveitis activity, and local and systemic complications of uveitis or therapy. Reading Center graders and glaucoma specialists assessing ocular complications were masked. Participants, ophthalmologists, and coordinators were unmasked. On evaluation of changes from baseline to 24 months among 255 patients randomized to implant and systemic therapy (479 eyes with uveitis), the implant and systemic therapy groups had an improvement in visual acuity of +6.0 and +3.2 letters (P = 0.16, 95% confidence interval on difference in improvement between groups, -1.2 to +6.7 letters, positive values favoring implant), an improvement in vision-related quality of life of +11.4 and +6.8 units (P = 0.043), a change in EuroQol-EQ5D health utility of +0.02 and -0.02 (P = 0.060), and residual active uveitis in 12% and 29% (P=0.001), respectively. Over the 24 month period, implant-assigned eyes had a higher risk of cataract surgery (80%, hazard ratio [HR] = 3.3, P < 0.0001), treatment for elevated intraocular pressure (61%, HR=4.2, P < 0.0001), and glaucoma (17%, HR=4.2, P = 0.0008). Patients assigned to systemic therapy had more prescription-requiring infections than patients assigned to implant therapy (0.60 vs 0.36/person-year, P=0.034), without notable long-term consequences; systemic adverse outcomes otherwise were unusual in both groups, with minimal differences between groups. In each treatment group, mean visual acuity improved over 24 months, with neither approach superior to a degree detectable with the study's power. Therefore, the specific advantages and disadvantages identified should dictate selection between the alternative treatments in consideration of individual patients' particular circumstances. Systemic therapy with aggressive use of corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppression was well tolerated, suggesting that this approach is reasonably safe for local and systemic inflammatory disorders. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references.
    Ophthalmology 08/2011; 118(10):1916-26. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare Reading Center (RC) cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) assessment from stereoscopic photographs with clinician estimation in a uveitis clinical trial. Clinical estimation of CDR was performed by ophthalmologists via dilated biomicroscopy. Photographic evaluation was performed at an independent RC by masked, certified evaluators. Quality control was performed by repeat grading of 77 randomly selected images. Among 479 eyes with uveitis, 353 eyes had clinical and photographic grades for CDR. Agreement between clinical and RC grading was fair, with exact agreement of 29%. Agreement within 0.1 and 0.2 CDR was 70 and 93%, respectively (weighted κ = .34). Intergrader reproducibility at the RC was better (weighted κ = .59, ICC 0.74). Morphologic assessment of cup to disc ratio is an important outcome and safety measure for determining glaucomatous damage in clinical trials. Masked RC measurements are more likely to be accurate than biomicroscopic grading in identifying meaningful anatomical change associated with glaucoma.
    Ocular immunology and inflammation 08/2011; 19(4):267-74. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate a photographic vitreous haze grading technique using a 9-step logarithmic scale in patients enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial in uveitis. Retrospective study of clinical trials methodology. University-based department of ophthalmology. Baseline fundus photographs of patients with intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis, or panuveitis enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment (MUST) trial. OBSERVATIONAL PROCEDURE: Grading of vitreous haze using a previously described photographic scale. Regrading of a subset of photographs to assess intraobserver agreement. Interobserver and intraobserver intraclass correlation for photographic haze grading, and correlation between photographic and clinical vitreous haze scores, assessment of the clinical findings that significantly affect the photographic haze score. Vitreous haze was graded in 271 eyes (142 patients) by 3 postgraduate ophthalmologists. The interobserver and intraobserver intraclass correlations were excellent, with correlation coefficients between 0.84 and 0.93. There was moderately strong correlation between the photographic and clinical vitreous haze scores (r=0.51; P<.001), with significant differences among the mean and median photographic haze scores for the 3 lowest clinical grades of haze, 0, 1+, and 2+. Other parameters that correlated with photographic vitreous haze score included visual acuity of 20/50 or worse (P=.003), degrees of posterior synechiae (P<.001), lens abnormality (P=.023) or posterior capsule obscuration (P=.001), and amount of anterior vitreous cell (P=.002). Photographic grading of vitreous haze with a 9-step logarithmic scale is a highly reproducible methodology that may be adaptable to use in future clinical trials.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 06/2011; 152(2):170-176.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the procedures and reproducibility for grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms of participants in the SCORE Study. Standardized stereoscopic fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms taken at 84 clinical centers were evaluated by graders at a central reading center. Type of retinal vein occlusion (RVO), area of retinal thickening, and area of retinal hemorrhage are evaluated from fundus photographs; area of fluorescein leakage and area of capillary nonperfusion are measured on fluorescein angiography. Temporal reproducibility consisted of annual regrading of a randomly selected dedicated subset of fundus photographs (60 subjects) and fluorescein angiograms (40 subjects) for 3 successive years. Contemporaneous reproducibility involved monthly regrading of a 5% random selection of recently evaluated fundus photographs (n = 73). The intergrader agreement for RVO type and presence of retinal thickening was greater than 90% in the 3 annual regrades. The intraclass correlation (ICC) for area of retinal thickening in the 3 years ranged from 0.39 to 0.64 and for area of retinal hemorrhage, 0.87 to 0.96. The ICC for area of fluorescein leakage ranged from 0.66 to 0.75 and for capillary nonperfusion, 0.94 to 0.97. The contemporaneous reproducibility results were similar to those of temporal reproducibility for all variables except area of retinal thickening (ICC, 0.84). The fundus photography and fluorescein angiography grading procedures for the SCORE Study are reproducible and can be used for multicenter longitudinal studies of RVO. A systematic temporal drift occurred in evaluating area of retinal thickening.
    Archives of ophthalmology 09/2010; 128(9):1140-5. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluorescein angiography (FA) has been performed as part of the management of diabetic macular edema for many years. Its current role relative to the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) is not well defined. To evaluate the associations of FA features with visual acuity (VA) and with OCT and fundus photographic characteristics in eyes with diabetic macular edema. In a clinical trial, conducted by the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network to compare two methods of laser photocoagulation to treat diabetic macular edema, FA (film and digital), color photographs, OCT, and VA measurements were obtained at baseline and at 1 year. Grading of morphologic features was performed at a reading center. Reproducibility of FAs was assessed, and the correlations of FA features with VA, OCT, and color photograph features were computed. From 79 clinical sites, data of 323 study eyes and 203 fellow nonstudy eyes were analyzed. Fluorescein leakage area at baseline was associated with reduced VA, increased OCT measures of retinal thickness and volume, and color photographic measurements of retinal thickening (r = 0.33-0.58). No important associations were found with changes from baseline to 12 months in these parameters or with any of the other variables analyzed. Fluorescein leakage is associated with VA and some OCT and color photographic variables. We did not identify any unique FA variables that had a stronger association with VA than OCT measures of retinal thickness. These data may be useful to investigators planning future diabetic macular edema clinical trials.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 01/2010; 30(10):1627-37. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the ocular and systemic safety of calcium formate, a dietary calcium supplement for prevention and management of osteoporosis. Although formate is an endogenous product of metabolism, high concentrations are associated with toxicity during methanol overdose. In this prospective clinical trial, 12 healthy women ingested calcium formate (1,300 mg) three times a day for 14 days. Study evaluations included physical and ocular examination, extensive laboratory testing, serum calcium and formate levels, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity, color vision, visual fields, visual evoked potential (VEP), and full-field, pattern, and multifocal electroretinograms (MERG). The mean baseline serum level of formate was 0.572 +/- 0.06 mM. Peak serum levels and final serum formate did not differ significantly from baseline. The final concentration was 0.582 +/- 0.091 mM. Accumulation of serum formate did not occur. There was also no evidence of toxicity with calcium formate ingestion. All examinations and tests remained normal, including optic nerve and retinal function. Three subjects had mild transient symptoms attributable to any calcium formulation. Calcium formate is highly bioavailable and well-tolerated. Serum formate remained at basal levels and did not accumulate with repeated dosing. Systemic and ocular safety was demonstrated by objective testing. Given its high oral bioavailability, calcium formate may be a good choice for calcium supplementation in the prevention and management of osteoporosis. Further study will be needed to evaluate its long-term safety in a larger group of subjects representing more varied age, health, dietary, and nutritional status.
    Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 07/2009; 25(3):223-30. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and efficacy of intravitreous pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). This dose-ranging, double-masked, multicenter, phase 2 trial included subjects with CRVO for 6 months' or less duration randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive pegaptanib sodium or sham injections every 6 weeks for 24 weeks (0.3 mg and 1 mg, n=33; sham, n=32). Visual acuity at week 30. In the primary analysis at week 30, 12 of 33 (36%) subjects treated with 0.3 mg of pegaptanib sodium and 13 of 33 (39%) treated with 1 mg gained 15 or more letters from baseline vs 9 of 32 (28%) sham-treated subjects (P= .48 for 0.3 mg and P= .35 for 1 mg of pegaptanib sodium vs sham). In secondary analyses, subjects treated with pegaptanib sodium were less likely to lose 15 or more letters (9% and 6%; 0.3-mg and 1-mg pegaptanib sodium groups, respectively) compared with sham-treated eyes (31%; P= .03 for 0.3 mg and P= .01 for 1 mg of pegaptanib sodium vs sham) and showed greater improvement in mean visual acuity (+7.1 and +9.9, respectively, vs -3.2 letters with sham; P= .09 for 0.3 mg and P= .02 for 1 mg of pegaptanib sodium vs sham). By week 1, the mean central retinal thickness decreased in the 0.3-mg and 1-mg pegaptanib sodium groups by 269 microm and 210 microm, respectively, vs 5 microm with sham (P< .001). Based on this 30-week study, intravitreous pegaptanib sodium appears to provide visual and anatomical benefits in the treatment of macular edema following CRVO. Benefits accrued with intravitreous pegaptanib sodium treatment of macular edema following CRVO suggest a role for vascular endothelial growth factor in the pathogenesis of this condition. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00088283.
    Archives of ophthalmology 04/2009; 127(4):374-80. · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Jonathan B Gunther, Michael M Altaweel
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    ABSTRACT: The use of intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) has greatly expanded since its introduction into ophthalmic care 3 years ago. A PubMed search on 1 August 2008 revealed 51 ocular disease processes that have been treated with bevacizumab. The majority of publications consist of case reports or retrospective case series and their number is increasing quickly. It is important to collate the experiences gained to date to properly inform our clinical decision making and improve the design of future clinical trials. Current studies cannot easily be combined in a meta-analysis given the lack of standardized data and the wide variety of disorders studied in small numbers. This paper will describe the attempted uses of intravitreal bevacizumab and its efficacy for each ocular disease in addition to discussing safety. Comments regarding appropriate use of this treatment are based on our current level of knowledge. It is clear that the initial encouraging results described in this paper warrant further study of intravitreal bevacizumab in larger, controlled, randomized trials.
    Survey of Ophthalmology 01/2009; 54(3):372-400. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To review the available information on classification of diabetic macular edema (DME) as focal or diffuse. Interpretive essay. Literature review and interpretation. The terms focal diabetic macular edema and diffuse diabetic macular edema frequently are used without clear definitions. Published definitions often use different examination methods and often are inconsistent. Evaluating published information on the prevalence of focal and diffuse DME, the responses of focal and diffuse DME to treatments, and the importance of focal and diffuse DME in assessing prognosis is hindered because the terms are used inconsistently. A newer vocabulary may be more constructive, one that describes discrete components of the concepts such as extent and location of macular thickening, involvement of the center of the macula, quantity and pattern of lipid exudates, source of fluorescein leakage, and regional variation in macular thickening and that distinguishes these terms from the use of the term focal when describing one type of photocoagulation technique. Developing methods for assessing component variables that can be used in clinical practice and establishing reproducibility of the methods are important tasks. Little evidence exists that characteristics of DME described by the terms focal and diffuse help to explain variation in visual acuity or response to treatment. It is unresolved whether a concept of focal and diffuse DME will prove clinically useful despite frequent use of the terms when describing management of DME. Further studies to address the issues are needed.
    American Journal of Ophthalmology 10/2008; 146(5):649-55, 655.e1-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    Archives of ophthalmology 07/2008; 126(6):868-9. · 3.86 Impact Factor