[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ligand-gated channels TRPV1 and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to behavioral responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch. Baseline responses to CRD were unexpectedly greater in TPDKO compared with control mice, but zymosan-produced CRD hypersensitivity was absent in TPDKO mice. Relative to control mice, proportions of mechano-sensitive and -insensitive pelvic nerve afferent classes were not different in TPDKO mice. Responses of mucosal and serosal class afferents to mechanical probing were unaffected, whereas responses of muscular (but not muscular/mucosal) afferents to stretch were significantly attenuated in TPDKO mice; sensitization of both muscular and muscular/mucosal afferents by inflammatory soup was also significantly attenuated. In pharmacological studies, the TRPV1 antagonist A889425 and P2X3 antagonist TNP-ATP, alone and in combination, applied onto stretch-sensitive afferent endings attenuated responses to stretch; combined antagonism produced greater attenuation. In the aggregate, these observations suggest that: (1) genetic manipulation of TRPV1 and P2X3 leads to reduction in colorectal mechanosensation peripherally and compensatory changes and/or disinhibition of other channels centrally; (2) combined pharmacological antagonism produces more robust attenuation of mechanosensation peripherally than does antagonism of either channel alone; and (3) the relative importance of these channels appears to be enhanced in colorectal hypersensitivity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by altered bowel habits, persistent pain and discomfort, and typically colorectal hypersensitivity. Linaclotide, a peripherally restricted 14 aa peptide approved for the treatment of IBS with constipation, relieves constipation and reduces IBS-associated pain in these patients presumably by activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), which stimulates production and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from intestinal epithelial cells. We investigated whether activation of GC-C by the endogenous agonist uroguanylin or the primary downstream effector of that activation, cGMP, directly modulates responses and sensitization of mechanosensitive colorectal primary afferents. The distal 2 cm of mouse colorectum with attached pelvic nerve was harvested and pinned flat mucosal side up for in vitro single-fiber recordings, and the encoding properties of mechanosensitive afferents (serosal, mucosal, muscular, and muscular-mucosal; M/M) to probing and circumferential stretch studied. Both cGMP (10-300 μm) and uroguanylin (1-1000 nm) applied directly to colorectal receptive endings significantly reduced responses of muscular and M/M afferents to stretch; serosal and mucosal afferents were not affected. Sensitized responses (i.e., increased responses to stretch) of muscular and M/M afferents were reversed by cGMP, returning responses to stretch to control. Blocking the transport of cGMP from colorectal epithelia by probenecid, a mechanism validated by studies in cultured intestinal T84 cells, abolished the inhibitory effect of uroguanylin on M/M afferents. These results suggest that GC-C agonists like linaclotide alleviate colorectal pain and hypersensitivity by dampening stretch-sensitive afferent mechanosensitivity and normalizing afferent sensitization.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 06/2013; 33(23):9831-9. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5114-12.2013 · 6.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several ion channels are thought to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, which contributes to abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the present work, I hypothesized that two such channels – TRPV1 and P2X3 – cooperate to mediate colorectal pain and hypersensitivity. To test this, I employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to whole- organism responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch. Baseline responses to CRD were unexpectedly greater in TPDKO compared with control mice, but zymosan-produced CRD hypersensitivity was absent in TPDKO mice. Relative to control mice, proportions of afferent mechano-sensitive and -insensitive classes were not different in TPDKO mice. Whereas responses of mucosal and serosal class afferents to mechanical probing were unaffected, responses of muscular (but not muscular/mucosal) afferents to stretch were significantly attenuated in TPDKO mice as was sensitization by inflammatory soup of both muscular and muscular/mucosal afferents. In pharmacological studies, the TRPV1 antagonist A889425 and P2X3 antagonist TNP-ATP, alone and in combination, applied onto stretch-sensitive afferent endings attenuated afferent responses to stretch; combined antagonism produced greater attenuation. In the aggregate, these observations suggest that: (1) genetic manipulation of TRPV1 and P2X3 leads to reduction in colorectal mechanosensation peripherally and compensatory changes and/or disinhibition of other channels centrally and (2) combined pharmacological antagonism produces more robust attenuation of mechanosensation peripherally than single antagonism. The relative importance of these channels appears to be enhanced in hypersensitivity, highlighting the potential utility of multi-target pharmacotherapy in IBS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been extensively studied in various neuronal systems, but their expression in visceral sensory and autonomic neurons remains to be analyzed in detail. Here we studied VGLUTs type 1 and 2 (VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , respectively) in neurons innervating the mouse colorectum. Lumbosacral and thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG), lumbar sympathetic chain (LSC), and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons innervating the colorectum of BALB/C mice were retrogradely traced with Fast Blue, dissected, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Tissue from additional naïve mice was included. Previously characterized antibodies against VGLUT(1) , VGLUT(2) , and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were used. Riboprobe in situ hybridization, using probes against VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , was also performed. Most colorectal DRG neurons expressed VGLUT(2) and often colocalized with CGRP. A smaller percentage of neurons expressed VGLUT(1) . VGLUT(2) -immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the MPG were rare. Abundant VGLUT(2) -IR nerves were detected in all layers of the colorectum; VGLUT(1) -IR nerves were sparse. A subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressed VGLUT2 protein and mRNA, but VGLUT1 mRNA was undetectable. In conclusion, we show 1) that most colorectal DRG neurons express VGLUT(2) , and to a lesser extent, VGLUT(1) ; 2) abundance of VGLUT2-IR fibers innervating colorectum; and 3) a subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressing VGLUT(2). Altogether, our data suggests a role for VGLUT(2) in colorectal glutamatergic neurotransmission, potentially influencing colorectal sensitivity and motility.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology 11/2011; 519(16):3346-66. DOI:10.1002/cne.22730 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacological activation of group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2 and mGlu3) receptors inhibits reward-seeking behavior and/or rewarding efficacy induced by drugs (cocaine, nicotine) or natural rewards (food, sucrose). In the present study, we investigated whether elevation of brain N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), an endogenous group II mGlu receptor agonist, by the NAAG peptidase inhibitor 2-PMPA attenuates cocaine's rewarding effects, as assessed by intravenous cocaine self-administration and intracranial electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR) in rats. Systemic administration of 2-PMPA (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or intranasal administration of NAAG (100, 300 μg/10 μl/nostril) significantly inhibited intravenous cocaine self-administration under progressive-ratio (PR), but not under fixed-ratio 2 (FR2), reinforcement conditions. In addition, 2-PMPA (1, 10, 30 mg/kg, i.p) or NAAG (50, 100 μg/10 μl/nostril) significantly inhibited cocaine-enhanced BSR, but not basal BSR. Pretreatment with LY341495 (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effects produced by 2-PMPA or NAAG in both the self-administration and BSR paradigms. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated that 2-PMPA (10, 30, 100 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-enhanced extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). 2-PMPA alone inhibited basal NAc DA release, an effect that was prevented by LY341495. These findings suggest that systemic administration of 2-PMPA or intranasal administration of NAAG inhibits cocaine's rewarding efficacy and cocaine-enhanced NAc DA – likely by activation of presynaptic mGlu2/3 receptors in the NAc. These data suggest a potential utility for 2-PMPA or NAAG in the treatment of cocaine addiction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are characterized in part by hypersensitivity to distention of the distal colon and rectum, causing normally non-noxious stimuli to be perceived as painful. This feature suggests abnormalities in primary afferent neurons, specifically those of the pelvic nerve (PN). The goal of this work was to become proficient in single-fiber electrophysiological characterization of mouse PN primary afferents using an in vitro colon preparation coupled with a novel electrical search strategy, which allowed for unbiased characterization of all excitable receptive endings (REs) including those of mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs). Using previously established criteria, mechanosensitive fibers were classified as mucosal, muscular, muscular/mucosal, and serosal based on their responses to three distinct mechanical stimuli: probing (0.4, 1.0, and 1.4 g), circumferential stretch (>2 mm), and mucosal stroking (10 mg). Located MIAs were tested for mechanical sensitization by exposing their REs to inflammatory soup and capsaicin. The proportions of afferent subtypes among the 39 PN fibers investigated were as follows: serosal (33%), muscular/mucosal (23%), muscular (26%), mucosal (10%), and MIA (8%). These proportions do not entirely match previous data. Also differing from previous investigations was the topographic distribution of afferents. Despite these discrepancies, which are most likely associated with limited sample size, the present study largely confirms previous findings, thus demonstrating the reliability of the experimenter with this particular technique. In addition to confirming the remarkable detail and fidelity in which mechanical events in the colon are encoded and transmitted, this project establishes the foundation for future work investigating the role of specific gene products in sensory function and the changes which may occur in peripheral innervation in pathophysiological states such as inflammatory/irritable bowel syndrome.