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Publications (3)14.22 Total impact

  • Michael Eugene Kiyatkin, Bin Feng, Erica S Schwartz, Gerald F Gebhart
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    ABSTRACT: The ligand-gated channels TRPV1 and P2X3 have been reported to facilitate colorectal afferent neuron sensitization, thus contributing to organ hypersensitivity and pain. In the present study, we hypothesized that TRPV1 and P2X3 cooperate to modulate colorectal nociception and afferent sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, we employed TRPV1-P2X3 double knockout (TPDKO) mice and channel-selective pharmacological antagonists and evaluated combined channel contributions to behavioral responses to colorectal distension (CRD) and afferent fiber responses to colorectal stretch. Baseline responses to CRD were unexpectedly greater in TPDKO compared with control mice, but zymosan-produced CRD hypersensitivity was absent in TPDKO mice. Relative to control mice, proportions of mechano-sensitive and -insensitive pelvic nerve afferent classes were not different in TPDKO mice. Responses of mucosal and serosal class afferents to mechanical probing were unaffected, whereas responses of muscular (but not muscular/mucosal) afferents to stretch were significantly attenuated in TPDKO mice; sensitization of both muscular and muscular/mucosal afferents by inflammatory soup was also significantly attenuated. In pharmacological studies, the TRPV1 antagonist A889425 and P2X3 antagonist TNP-ATP, alone and in combination, applied onto stretch-sensitive afferent endings attenuated responses to stretch; combined antagonism produced greater attenuation. In the aggregate, these observations suggest that: (1) genetic manipulation of TRPV1 and P2X3 leads to reduction in colorectal mechanosensation peripherally and compensatory changes and/or disinhibition of other channels centrally; (2) combined pharmacological antagonism produces more robust attenuation of mechanosensation peripherally than does antagonism of either channel alone; and (3) the relative importance of these channels appears to be enhanced in colorectal hypersensitivity.
    AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 08/2013; · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by altered bowel habits, persistent pain and discomfort, and typically colorectal hypersensitivity. Linaclotide, a peripherally restricted 14 aa peptide approved for the treatment of IBS with constipation, relieves constipation and reduces IBS-associated pain in these patients presumably by activation of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C), which stimulates production and release of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from intestinal epithelial cells. We investigated whether activation of GC-C by the endogenous agonist uroguanylin or the primary downstream effector of that activation, cGMP, directly modulates responses and sensitization of mechanosensitive colorectal primary afferents. The distal 2 cm of mouse colorectum with attached pelvic nerve was harvested and pinned flat mucosal side up for in vitro single-fiber recordings, and the encoding properties of mechanosensitive afferents (serosal, mucosal, muscular, and muscular-mucosal; M/M) to probing and circumferential stretch studied. Both cGMP (10-300 μm) and uroguanylin (1-1000 nm) applied directly to colorectal receptive endings significantly reduced responses of muscular and M/M afferents to stretch; serosal and mucosal afferents were not affected. Sensitized responses (i.e., increased responses to stretch) of muscular and M/M afferents were reversed by cGMP, returning responses to stretch to control. Blocking the transport of cGMP from colorectal epithelia by probenecid, a mechanism validated by studies in cultured intestinal T84 cells, abolished the inhibitory effect of uroguanylin on M/M afferents. These results suggest that GC-C agonists like linaclotide alleviate colorectal pain and hypersensitivity by dampening stretch-sensitive afferent mechanosensitivity and normalizing afferent sensitization.
    Journal of Neuroscience 06/2013; 33(23):9831-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been extensively studied in various neuronal systems, but their expression in visceral sensory and autonomic neurons remains to be analyzed in detail. Here we studied VGLUTs type 1 and 2 (VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , respectively) in neurons innervating the mouse colorectum. Lumbosacral and thoracolumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG), lumbar sympathetic chain (LSC), and major pelvic ganglion (MPG) neurons innervating the colorectum of BALB/C mice were retrogradely traced with Fast Blue, dissected, and processed for immunohistochemistry. Tissue from additional naïve mice was included. Previously characterized antibodies against VGLUT(1) , VGLUT(2) , and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were used. Riboprobe in situ hybridization, using probes against VGLUT(1) and VGLUT(2) , was also performed. Most colorectal DRG neurons expressed VGLUT(2) and often colocalized with CGRP. A smaller percentage of neurons expressed VGLUT(1) . VGLUT(2) -immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the MPG were rare. Abundant VGLUT(2) -IR nerves were detected in all layers of the colorectum; VGLUT(1) -IR nerves were sparse. A subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressed VGLUT2 protein and mRNA, but VGLUT1 mRNA was undetectable. In conclusion, we show 1) that most colorectal DRG neurons express VGLUT(2) , and to a lesser extent, VGLUT(1) ; 2) abundance of VGLUT2-IR fibers innervating colorectum; and 3) a subpopulation of myenteric plexus neurons expressing VGLUT(2). Altogether, our data suggests a role for VGLUT(2) in colorectal glutamatergic neurotransmission, potentially influencing colorectal sensitivity and motility.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 07/2011; 519(16):3346-66. · 3.66 Impact Factor