[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MFG-E8 (also called lactadherin and SED1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been previously implicated in enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis. Major sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and precise mechanisms of MFG-E8 action remain undetermined. The objective of this study was to identify important sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and further elucidate the role(s) of MFG-E8 in the regulation of angiogenesis.
We used knockout mice and anti-MFG-E8 antibodies to study MFG-E8 function in vivo. In melanomas and in retinas of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, MFG-E8 colocalized with pericytes rather than endothelial cells, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β+ pericytes/pericyte precursors purified from tumors contained large amounts of MFG-E8 mRNA. Tumor- and retinopathy-associated angiogenesis was diminished in MFG-E8 knockout mice, and pericyte coverage of neovessels was reduced. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production by 10T1/2 cells (surrogate pericyte/pericyte precursors) using small interfering RNAs and short hairpin RNAs, or inhibition of MFG-E8 action with some anti-MFG-E8 antibodies, selectively attenuated migration in vitro. Significantly, the anti-MFG-E8 antibodies that inhibited 10T1/2 cell migration in vitro also inhibited pathological angiogenesis in vivo.
These studies strongly implicate MFG-E8 in pericyte/pericyte precursor function and indicate that MFG-E8-directed therapeutics may merit further development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pericytes/pericyte precursors produce milk fat globule-associated protein with epidermal growth factor and factor VIII-like domains (MFG-E8) in vivo, and this α(v) integrin ligand enhances angiogenesis in tumors and in oxygen-induced retinopathy in mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production or function attenuates platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced migration of pericyte/pericyte precursor-like 10T1/2 cells in vitro. Herein, we describe mechanisms by which MFG-E8 modulates PDGF-BB:PDGF receptor β (PDGFRβ) signaling in 10T1/2 cells.
Small interfering RNA depletion of MFG-E8 from 10T1/2 cells or antibody inhibition of MFG-E8 action enhanced PDGF-BB-dependent degradation of PDGFRβ and attenuated signaling. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed transient association of MFG-E8 with PDGFRβ in PDGF-BB-treated 10T1/2 cells and reduced PDGFRβ-focal adhesion kinase association in MFG-E8-depleted cells. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that MFG-E8 binding to 10T1/2 cells was RGD motif and α(v) dependent but PDGF-BB treatment independent, whereas colocalization of MFG-E8 with PDGFRβ was enhanced by PDGF-BB. Ubiquitination of PDGFRβ was also increased in MFG-E8 small interfering RNA-transfected cells.
Integrin α(v)-bound MFG-E8 associates with PDGFRβ and focal adhesion kinase after PDGF-BB treatment, results in cell surface retention of PDGFRβ, delays receptor degradation, potentiates downstream signaling, and enhances migration of 10T1/2 cells. MFG-E8 may promote angiogenesis, in part, via cell autonomous actions on pericytes or pericyte precursors that result in enhanced PDGF-BB:PDGFRβ signaling mediated via integrin-growth factor receptor cross-talk.