Mark A Catherwood

University of Ulster, Aontroim, N Ireland, United Kingdom

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Publications (31)132.46 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can compromise the successful treatment of many malignancies including plasma cell myeloma (PCM). However, methods do not yet exist that can accurately determine P-gp activity in PCM patient samples. In this study, we have utilized new advances in flow cytometric methods to determine the activity of P-gp in PCM tumor cells. Furthermore, we have used several PCR-based approaches to perform a pilot study determining the functional impact of ABCB1 SNPs in patients with PCM. No associations were seen between P-gp activity or expression and subgroups of PCM. Similarly, no association was seen between P-gp expression and SNPs within ABCB1 although a nonsignificant reduction in activity was demonstrated for rs1045642 (P = 0.121). We have described a new method for the determination of P-gp and MRP activity suitable for use in clinical studies and have optimized this method to include a gating strategy, allowing routine use on PCM bone marrow aspirate samples. This is the first patient study to consider the full impact of SNPs within ABCB1 all the way from the genome to the proteome in PCM. The methods described here could also be utilized for future studies of "stem cell like" side populations in PCM that are considered to be drug resistant. Furthermore, minor amendments to these methods will facilitate studies of P-gp, MRP, and BCRP activity in other haematological malignancies.
    Cytometry Part B Clinical Cytometry 03/2012; 82(4):229-37. · 2.23 Impact Factor
  • British Journal of Haematology 07/2011; 156(1):133-6. · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) leads to impaired treatment efficacy in all forms of malignancy. The main forms of MDR are thought to be mediated by the substrate transporting actions of certain adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins. The genes ABCB1, ABCB4, ABCC1, ABCG2 and LRP1 have been identified as the most prominent contributors to clinically significant MDR. To date, no study has investigated the expression of these genes in plasma cell myeloma (PCM), or attempted to relate their expression to the incidence of relapse and/or stage at presentation. Here, we show that ABCB4 may be a prominent mediator of tumour cell MDR within PCM. Additionally, there are three SNPs (rs1045642, rs2032582 and rs1128503) within the most widely studied of these genes, ABCB1, which have been suggested to have a potential impact on OS in PCM and which may form a haplotype in ABCB1. rs1045642 in ABCB1 appears to be the only SNP affecting OS within the PCM patients studied, with minimal linkage disequilibrium demonstrated between it and rs2032582 and rs1128503.
    Leukemia research 06/2011; 35(11):1457-63. · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Stephen Drain, Mark A Catherwood, H Denis Alexander
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    ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon in malignancy whereby tumor cells generate mechanisms to resist cytotoxic treatments. Several such mechanisms have been identified. However, to date the most significant research on MDR has involved the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP). These proteins have natural functions involving substrate transport in normal cells but are detrimental to treatment when expressed in the membrane of tumor cells. It remains unclear whether ABC mediated MDR functions primarily through protein up-regulation or via a relevant signaling mechanism, or is simply due to selective pressure on an already resistant tumor cell subpopulation. Here we present an overview of MDR in the chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPDs), in particular that attributed to the ABC transporter protein family.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 10/2010; 51(10):1793-804. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepine-15 (PBOX-15) is a novel microtubule depolymerization agent that induces cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in a number of cancer cell lines. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by clonal expansion of predominately nonproliferating mature B cells. Here, we present data suggesting PBOX-15 is a potential therapeutic agent for CLL. We show activity of PBOX-15 in samples taken from a cohort of CLL patients (n = 55) representing both high-risk and low-risk disease. PBOX-15 exhibited cytotoxicity in CLL cells (n = 19) in a dose-dependent manner, with mean IC(50) of 0.55 micromol/L. PBOX-15 significantly induced apoptosis in CLL cells (n = 46) including cells with poor prognostic markers: unmutated IgV(H) genes, CD38 and zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) expression, and fludarabine-resistant cells with chromosomal deletions in 17p. In addition, PBOX-15 was more potent than fludarabine in inducing apoptosis in fludarabine-sensitive cells. Pharmacologic inhibition and small interfering RNA knockdown of caspase-8 significantly inhibited PBOX-15-induced apoptosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase inhibited PBOX-15-induced apoptosis in mutated IgV(H) and ZAP-70(-) CLL cells but not in unmutated IgV(H) and ZAP-70(+) cells. PBOX-15 exhibited selective cytotoxicity in CLL cells compared with normal hematopoietic cells. Our data suggest that PBOX-15 represents a novel class of agents that are toxic toward both high-risk and low-risk CLL cells. The need for novel treatments is acute in CLL, especially for the subgroup of patients with poor clinical outcome and drug-resistant disease. This study identifies a novel agent with significant clinical potential.
    Cancer Research 10/2009; 69(21):8366-75. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes a case of aleukaemic myeloid sarcoma of the small intestine in a 50-year-old woman presenting with small bowel obstruction. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis of interphase nuclei revealed a split CBFbeta signal, consistent with an underlying inversion of chromosome 16, inv(16)(p13q22). The resultant type A CBFbeta/MYH11 transcript was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR. Immunohistochemistry with the AH107 antibody to the CBFbeta-SMMHC chimeric protein showed strong nuclear staining of the tumour cell nuclei. This represents the first use of this antibody in the diagnosis of this subtype of myeloid sarcoma in the small intestine.
    Journal of clinical pathology 09/2009; 62(8):757-9. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) may compromise the successful management of haematological malignancies, impairing the effectiveness of chemotherapy. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug efflux pump, encoded by the gene ABCB1 (MDR1), is the most widely studied component in MDR. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been identified within ABCB1, rs1045642 (C3435T), which may alter P-gp substrate specificity and have an impact on the effectiveness of treatment, and hence overall survival (OS). We estimated the frequency of this SNP in the Northern Irish population and investigated its impact on the OS of patients with plasma cell myeloma (PCM). There was no significant difference in the frequency of rs1045642 between the PCM cohort and an age- and gender-matched control population. Findings within the PCM cohort suggest that rs1045642 genotype influences OS (p = 2 x 10(-2)). If confirmed in larger studies, these results suggest that genotyping rs1045642 may be a useful predictor of outcome in PCM and could indicate modified treatment modalities in certain individuals.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 05/2009; 50(4):566-70. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biased IgHV gene usage in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is well documented and suggests antigen involvement in leukemogenesis. IgHV1-69 is one of the most frequently rearranged IgHV genes in CLL and the majority of IgHV1-69 cases lack somatic hypermutation and display poor prognosis. However, its independent prognostic impact remains uncertain given reports showing a low proportion of mutated IgHV1-69 cases and stereotyped IgHV1-69 subsets with divergent clinical outcome. We assessed the frequency and clinical significance of IgHV1-69 gene usage in a cohort of 330 CLL patients. Functional IgHV1-69 gene rearrangements were detected in 32 cases (9.7%), 31 of which were characterised further. Seven (22.6%) were found to have undergone somatic hypermutation. This subgroup had shorter and more diverse complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences compared with unmutated IgHV1-69 cases. In addition, mutated IgHV1-69 gene status was associated with lower cell surface CD38 expression and less progressive disease as monitored by Binet staging, lymphocyte doubling time and requirement of chemotherapeutic intervention. To conclude, we present data confirming that IgHV1-69 gene rearrangements in CLL are not exclusively associated with unmutated IgHV status. In addition, we show that a somatically hypermutated subgroup may demonstrate more indolent characteristics despite the general association of IgHV1-69 gene usage with aggressive disease.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 05/2008; 49(4):763-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    P C Winter, M F McMullin, M A Catherwood
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 03/2008; · 10.16 Impact Factor
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    P C Winter, M F McMullin, M A Catherwood
    Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 03/2008; 22(8):1629-31; discussion 1631-3. · 10.16 Impact Factor
  • L Venkatraman, M Catherwood, G Benson, M Drake
    Histopathology 01/2008; 51(6):866-8. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PCR detects clonal rearrangements of the Ig gene in lymphoproliferative disorders. False negativity occurs in germinal centre/post-germinal centre lymphomas (GC/PGCLs) as they display a high rate of somatic hypermutation (SHM), which causes primer mismatching when detecting Ig rearrangements by PCR. To investigate the degree of SHM in a group of GC/PGCLs and assess the rate of false negativity when using BIOMED-2 PCR when compared with previously published strategies. DNA was isolated from snap-frozen tissue from 49 patients with GC/PGCL (23 diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs), 26 follicular lymphomas (FLs)) and PCR-amplified for complete (VDJH), incomplete (DJH) and Ig kappa/lambda rearrangements using the BIOMED-2 protocols, and compared with previously published methods using consensus primers. Germinal centre phenotype was defined by immunohistochemistry based on CD10, Bcl-6 and MUM-1. Clonality detection by amplifying Ig rearrangements using BIOMED-2 family-specific primers was considerably higher than that found using consensus primers (74% DLBCL and 96% FL vs 69% DLBCL and 73% FL). Addition of BIOMED-2 DJH rearrangements increased detection of clonality by 22% in DLBCL. SHM was present in VDJH rearrangements from all patients with DLBCL (median (range) 5.7% (2.5-13.5)) and FL (median (range) 5.3% (2.3-11.9)) with a clonal rearrangement. Use of BIOMED-2 primers has significantly reduced the false negative rate associated with GC/PGCL when compared with consensus primers, and the inclusion of DJH rearrangements represents a potential complementary target for clonality assessment, as SHM is thought not to occur in these types of rearrangements.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology 06/2007; 60(5):524-8. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Routine interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with LSI IGH/CCND1 assay, applied to differentiate CLL from leukemic mantle cell lymphoma, identified a subset of cases (42/174) with translocation-like IGH signal pattern. To unravel the underlying 14q32/IGH aberrations, 14 of these cases were subjected to cytogenetic, detailed FISH, and V(H) mutation analyses. FISH identified cryptic losses of various portions of the IGHV region in all 14 cases. Fine mapping of these V(H) deletions revealed a strict correlation between their distal border and localization of the used VH gene, suggesting that they are not oncogenic but reflect physiological events accompanying somatic V-D-J assembly. This hypothesis was further supported by FISH analysis of 20 CLL and hairy cell leukemia cases with the known V(H) usage showing a constant loss of sequences proximal to the used gene, identification of V(H) deletions in normal B cells, and their exclusive demonstration in B cell malignancies, but not of T cell and myeloid linage. Given that these cryptic physiological VH losses in B cells may seriously complicate analysis of B cell leukemia/lymphoma and lead to false conclusions, FISH users should take them into consideration when interpreting IGH aberrations in these malignancies.
    Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 03/2007; 9(1):47-54. · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined IgV(H) gene usage in 228 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients to investigate associations between gene usage and other biological or clinical characteristics. V(H)3-48 [N=8] and V(H)3-53 [N=4] gene rearrangements showed biased lambda light chain restriction and were predominantly found in female patients with short lymphocyte doubling time but without adverse prognosis cytogenetics. Overuse of V(L)3-21(Vlambda2-14) gene and highly homologous LCDR3 sequences were found in V(H)3-48 patients. V(H)3-21 gene usage [N=18, 7.9%] was associated with poor prognosis, overuse of V(L)3-21(Vlambda2-14) gene and highly homologous heavy- and light-chain CDR3 sequences, but was not associated with poor prognosis chromosomal aberrations.
    Leukemia Research 03/2007; 31(2):231-4. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used as a screening test to evaluate lymphadenopathy. The combined use of genetic analysis and flow cytometry for immunophenotyping has increased the accuracy of diagnosis and correct categorisation of lymphomas on cytological preparations. To show the utility of immunocytochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the evaluation of cytological preparations of lymph nodes. Fine needle aspirates were obtained from 33 patients (initial presentation, n = 27; recurrence, n = 6). Routine examination was undertaken using immunocytochemistry and DNA PCR to detect clonality and specific translocations. The cytodiagnosis and subclassification of lymphoma was correlated with histological diagnosis in the available follow-up biopsies. 14 patients had a cytological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 4 had suspected NHL, 2 had atypical lymphoid proliferation and 13 had reactive hyperplasia. A World Health Organization (WHO) subtype was suggested in 8 patients. Incorporating the results of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements enabled diagnosis of lymphoma in 17 patients, including 5 of the 6 patients suspected to have NHL or an atypical lymphoid proliferation. Identification of the translocations t (14;18) and t (2;5) helped WHO categorisation in 3 of the patients. The cytological findings were confirmed in 12 out of the 13 patients for whom histological follow-up was available. Seven of the 18 lymphoma patients were managed without a subsequent biopsy. We made one false-positive diagnosis of B-cell NHL on cytology. The use of immunocytochemistry and PCR is valuable in the definitive diagnosis and subtyping of malignant lymphomas on cytological preparations. The use of these techniques may avoid lymph node biopsies in some cases and allow definitive treatment based on aspirate findings alone.
    Journal of Clinical Pathology 12/2006; 59(11):1160-5. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two P-glycoprotein (P-gp) genes, MDR-1 (ABCB1) and MDR-3 (ABCB4), have been identified in humans. This study was designed to investigate whether associations exist between expression of MDR-1 and MDR-3 P-gp and other markers of poor prognosis and/or prior exposure to therapeutic agents in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). IgVH mutational status, gene usage, CD38 positivity, FISH analysis and clinical information were available on all patients. Twenty-one of 101 patients tested showed MDR-3 P-gp positivity. Associations with markers of poor prognosis or prior chemotherapy did not reach statistical significance, but MDR-3 P-gp positive patients had significantly shorter survivals than MDR-3 P-gp negative patients. MDR-1 P-gp expression (18/25) showed a strong association with unmutated IgVH genes and adverse prognosis cytogenetics (p = 0.015, p = 0.014, respectively), but was independent of prior exposure to chemotherapeutic agents. These results suggest a role for MDR-1 and MDR-3 in chemoresistant disease. This study highlights the value of determining MDR phenotype in CLL patients prior to treatment, to allow the design of novel drug regimens containing agents that reverse MDR function.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 12/2006; 47(11):2308-13. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serum thymidine kinase (TK) levels have been shown to be correlated with survival in many malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). This study was designed to investigate associations between TK levels and other prognostic markers, in newly and previously diagnosed Binet stage A patients. Furthermore, the use of serum TK measurement to identify subcategories of disease within those defined by IgV(H) mutational status, gene usage and chromosomal aberrations was investigated. Ninety-one CLL patients were enrolled. Serum TK levels were measured using a radioenzyme assay. IgV(H) mutational status and V(H) gene usage were determined using BIOMED-2 primers and protocol. Recurring chromosomal abnormalities were detected by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH). Flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) determined CD38 and Zap-70 expression, respectively. Significantly higher serum TK levels were found in IgV(H) unmutated, compared with IgV(H) mutated, patients (P < 0.001). Elevated TK levels were also found in patients with CD38 and Zap-70 positivity (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, respectively), short lymphocyte doubling time (LDT) (P = 0.044) and poor or intermediate prognosis chromosomal aberrations (P < 0.001). A TK level of >8.5 U/L best identified patients with progressive disease. Elevated TK levels could identify patients categorised, at diagnosis, into good prognosis subgroups by the various biological markers (mutated IgV(H), good prognosis chromosomal aberrations, Zap-70(-) and CD38(-)) who subsequently showed disease progression. Additionally, patients with V(H)3-21 gene usage showed high TK levels, irrespective of mutational status, and serum TK measurement retained predictive power as disease progressed in all subcategories studied.
    European Journal Of Haematology 10/2006; 77(4):309-17. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are treated with thiopurines. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyses the S-methylation of thiopurines and is subject to genetic polymorphism. The TPMT genotype was determined in 55 patients with ALL. Three patients were heterozygous for allelic variants of TPMT. We describe an assay for the genotyping of the TPMT polymorphism using real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to facilitate rapid processing of samples. This strategy is superior to standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism genotyping methods and provides informative data on TPMT polymorphisms in patients prior to treatment with thiopurines.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 09/2006; 47(8):1624-8. · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Molecular markers like IgV(H) mutational status, chromosomal abnormalities, and CD38 and ZAP-70 expression have prognostic value in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). These may be pathogenetic because of the coincidental expression of ZAP-70 and increased B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and the signaling function of CD38 in CLL. This study shows that ZAP-70(+) CLL B cells respond in vitro more readily than ZAP-70(-) CLL and normal B cells to chemokine migratory signals through enhanced surface CCR7 expression (P = .009; P < .001) and increased responsiveness to its ligands CCL19 and CCL21, demonstrated by F-actin polymerization (P < .05) and cellular migration (P < .01). In addition, ZAP-70(+) CLL cells exhibit sustained ERK phosphorylation/activation following stimulation with CXCL12 (SDF1-alpha, a survival factor produced by stromal cells) compared with ZAP-70(-) cells (P = .004). Following coculture with nurse-like cells, the survival of ZAP-70(+) but not ZAP-70(-) CLL cells is significantly enhanced by the addition of CXCL12 (P < .05), an effect that is partially blocked by the MEK inhibitor PD98059. These advantageous migratory and survival responses may promote easier access to and greater proliferation in pseudo-germinal centers and explain in part the more progressive nature of ZAP-70(+) disease.
    Blood 05/2006; 107(9):3584-92. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mutational status of the immunoglobulin (Ig) V(H) gene in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) identifies two subgroups of patients with significantly different outcomes. We investigated the association of ZAP-70 expression with IgVH mutational status in B-CLL by quantifying ZAP-70 mRNA, to evaluate its use as a surrogate marker for mutational status. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) assay for the detection of ZAP-70 expression in a group of patients whose mutational status and cytogenetics had been determined previously. RQ-PCR was used to analyse ZAP-70 expression from 42 B-CLL patients. B cells were purified using CD19 magnetic bead system and total RNA was isolated. RQ-PCR was performed using Taqman PCR. Twenty-five patients (60%) had mutated and 17 (40%) had unmutated IgVH genes; 94% (16/17) of patients with unmutated IgVH gene were ZAP-70 positive as assessed by RQ-PCR and 92% (23/25) of patients with mutated IgVH gene were ZAP-70 negative. In three patients, ZAP-70 expression and IgVH mutational status were discordant. This paper describes an RQ-PCR assay for the detection of ZAP-70 expression and confirms that IgV(H) unmutated CLL cells have a high expression of ZAP-70 in comparison with IgVH mutated CLL. This robust method acts as a surrogate marker for IgVH mutational status albeit with <100% concordance. However, it does provide better concordance with mutational status than that reported using flow cytometry.
    European Journal Of Haematology 04/2006; 76(4):294-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

502 Citations
132.46 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • University of Ulster
      Aontroim, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2011
    • Belfast Healthy Cities
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • KU Leuven
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Leuven, VLG, Belgium
  • 2002
    • Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2002
    • Queen's University Belfast
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2001
    • Royal Society of Medicine
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom