[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study measured and compared the pharmacokinetics of CMPD167, a small molecule antiretroviral CCR5 inhibitor with potential as an HIV microbicide, following vaginal, rectal and oral administration in rhesus macaques.
A vaginal hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel, a rectal HEC gel, a silicone elastomer matrix-type vaginal ring and an oral solution, each containing CMPD167, were prepared and administered to rhesus macaques pretreated with Depo-Provera. CMPD167 concentrations in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue (ring only), rectal fluid and blood plasma were quantified by HPLC-mass spectrometry.
CMPD167 concentrations measured in rectal fluid, vaginal fluid and blood plasma were highly dependent on both the route of administration and the formulation type. Although rectal and vaginal fluid concentrations were highest when CMPD167 was administered locally (via either gel or ring), lower concentrations of the drug were also measured in these compartments following administration at the remote mucosal site or orally. CMPD167 levels in the vaginal and rectal fluid following oral administration were relatively low compared with local administration.
The study provides clear evidence for vaginal-rectal and rectal-vaginal drug transfer pathways and suggests that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with CMPD167 may be less efficacious at preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1 than topically applied products.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To investigate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of maraviroc, a CCR5-targeted HIV-1 entry inhibitor, in rhesus macaques following vaginal administration of various maraviroc-loaded aqueous hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gels, and to correlate the PK data with efficacy in a single high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge model.
Maraviroc concentrations in vaginal fluid (Weck-Cel(®) sponge), vaginal tissue (punch biopsy) and plasma were assessed over 72 h following single-dose vaginal application of various maraviroc-loaded HEC gels. The range of maraviroc gel concentrations was sufficiently broad (0.003%-3.3% w/w) that test gels included both fully solubilized and predominantly dispersed formulations. The efficacy of the HEC gels against a single high-dose vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge was also measured, and correlated with the PK concentrations.
Maraviroc concentrations in vaginal fluid (range 10(4)-10(7) ng/mL), vaginal tissue (100-1200 ng/g) and plasma (<10(2) ng/mL) were highly dependent on maraviroc gel loading, irrespective of the form of the maraviroc component within the gel (solubilized versus dispersed). Fluid and plasma concentrations were generally highest 0.5 or 2 h after gel application, before declining steadily through to 72 h. Maraviroc concentrations in the various biological compartments correlated strongly with the extent of protection against vaginal SHIV-162P3 challenge. Complete protection was achieved with a 3.3% w/w maraviroc gel.
A high degree of correlation between PK and efficacy was observed. Based on the data obtained with the 3.3% w/w maraviroc gel, maintenance of vaginal fluid and tissue levels in the order of 10(7) ng/mL and 10(3) ng/g, respectively, are required for complete protection with this compound.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor MC1220 has potent in vitro activity against HIV type 1 (HIV-1). A liposome gel formulation of MC1220 has previously been reported to partially protect rhesus macaques against vaginal challenge with a simian HIV (SHIV). Here, we describe the pre-clinical development of an MC1220-releasing silicone elastomer vaginal ring (SEVR), including pharmacokinetic (PK) and efficacy studies in macaques.
In vitro release studies were conducted on SEVRs loaded with 400 mg of MC1220, using simulated vaginal fluid (SVF, n = 4) and 1 : 1 isopropanol/water (IPA/H(2)O, n = 4) as release media. For PK evaluation, SEVRs were inserted into adult female macaques (n = 6) for 30 days. Following a 1 week washout period, fresh rings were placed in the same animals, which were then challenged vaginally with RT-SHIV162P3 once weekly for 4 weeks.
SEVRs released 1.66 and 101 mg of MC1220 into SVF and IPA/H(2)O, respectively, over 30 days, the differential reflecting the low aqueous solubility of the drug. In macaque PK studies, MC1220 was consistently detected in vaginal fluid (peak 845 ng/mL) and plasma (peak 0.91 ng/mL). Kaplan-Meier analysis over 9 weeks showed significantly lower infection rates for animals given MC1220-containing SEVRs than placebo rings (hazard ratio 0.20, P = 0.0037).
An MC1220-releasing SEVR partially protected macaques from vaginal challenge. Such ring devices are a practical method for providing sustained, coitally independent protection against vaginal exposure to HIV-1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral entry inhibitors are now being considered as vaginally administered microbicide candidates for the prevention
of the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Previous studies testing the entry inhibitors maraviroc and CMPD167
in aqueous gel formulations showed efficacy in the macaque challenge model, although protection was highly dependent on the
time period between initial gel application and subsequent challenge. In this paper, we describe the sustained release of
maraviroc and CMPD167 from matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal rings both in vitro and in vivo. Both inhibitors were released continuously during 28 days from rings in vitro at rates of 100 to 2,500 μg/day. In 28-day pharmacokinetic studies in rhesus macaques, the compounds were measured in the
vaginal fluid and vaginal tissue; steady-state fluid concentrations were ∼106-fold greater than the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for simian human immunodeficiency virus 162P3 inhibition in macaque lymphocytes in vitro. Plasma concentrations for both compounds were very low. The pretreatment of macaques with Depo-Provera (DP), which is commonly
used in macaque challenge studies, was shown to significantly modify the biodistribution of the inhibitors but not the overall
amount released. Vaginal fluid and tissue concentrations were significantly decreased while plasma levels increased with DP
pretreatment. These observations have implications for designing macaque challenge experiments and also for ring performance
during the human female menstrual cycle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aqueous semi-solid polymeric gels, such as those based on hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and polyacrylic acid (e.g. Carbopol®), have a long history of use in vaginal drug delivery. However, despite their ubiquity, they often provide sub-optimal clinical performance, due to poor mucosal retention and limited solubility for poorly water-soluble actives. These issues are particularly pertinent for vaginal HIV microbicides, since many lead candidates are poorly water-soluble and where a major goal is the development of a coitally independent, once daily gel product. In this study, we report the use of a non-aqueous silicone elastomer gel for vaginal delivery of the HIV-1 entry inhibitor maraviroc. In vitro rheological, syringeability and retention studies demonstrated enhanced performance for silicone gels compared with a conventional aqueous HEC gel, while testing of the gels in the slug model confirmed a lack of mucosal irritancy. Pharmacokinetic studies following single dose vaginal administration of a maraviroc silicone gel in rhesus macaques showed higher and sustained MVC levels in vaginal fluid, vaginal tissue and plasma compared with a HEC gel containing the same maraviroc loading. The results demonstrate that non-aqueous silicone gels have potential as a formulation platform for coitally independent vaginal HIV microbicides.