[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant roots play important roles not only in the absorption of water and nutrients, but also in stress tolerance. Previously, we identified RSOsPR10 as a root-specific pathogenesis-related (PR) protein induced by drought and salt treatments in rice. Transcripts and proteins of RSOsPR10 were strongly induced by jasmonate (JA) and the ethylene (ET) precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), while salicylic acid (SA) almost completely suppressed these inductions. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that RSOsPR10 strongly accumulated in cortex cells surrounding the vascular system of roots, and this accumulation was also suppressed when SA was applied simultaneously with stress or hormone treatments. In the JA-deficient mutant hebiba, RSOsPR10 expression was up-regulated by NaCl, wounding, drought and exogenous application of JA. This suggested the involvement of a signal transduction pathway that integrates JA and ET signals in plant defense responses. Expression of OsERF1, a transcription factor in the JA/ET pathway, was induced earlier than that of RSOsPR10 after salt, JA and ACC treatments. Simultaneous SA treatment strongly inhibited the induction of RSOsPR10 expression and, to a lesser extent, induction of OsERF1 expression. These results suggest that JA/ET and SA pathways function in the stress-responsive induction of RSOsPR10, and that OsERF1 may be one of the transcriptional factors in the JA/ET pathway.