[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Double-Shear Lap Joint (DSLJ) is a novel damping insert sited internally within a structure which is particularly well suited for lightweight sandwich structures with internal voids, such as honeycomb core sandwich panels. In high performance lightweight structures, the insertion of relatively more dense dampers of any type may increase the total mass substantially and alter the mass distribution significantly. The objective herein was to determine the optimum location, number and orientation of DSLJ inserts within a typical sandwich panel, and thereby to assess the efficacy of two different optimisation approaches to this problem; a parametric optimisation and the Adaptive Indicator-Based Evolutionary Algorithm (IBEA). Both approaches were used to maximise the damping while minimising the additional mass of the damping inserts applied to the structure. Although the parametric approach was faster and easier to implement, the Adaptive IBEA identified significantly better configurations in many cases, especially where veering occurred, in one case improving modal loss factors more than fourfold vs the parametric method. Solutions were identified with large increases in modal loss factors but only small increases in mass vs the empty structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Materials with a negative Poisson's ratio known also as auxetic materials  exhibit unusual property of getting thicker when stretched and thinner when compressed. The helical auxetic yarn (HAY) is a recently invented auxetic reinforcing structure for composites . A helical auxetic yarn (HAY) consists of two fibres: a low modulus elastomeric core and a high modulus wrap fibre in a double helix structure. When a tensile load is applied the core of the HAY becomes wider as the wrap straightens out, resulting in a lateral expansion of the core, and therefore a large negative Poisson' ratio behaviour. The auxetic behaviour of the HAY can be tailored by altering fibre properties, the initial geometry and also the applied strain to comply with specific applications, such as composites [3, 4], blast mitigation, and filtration . This paper introduces a further development to the current HAY by addition of a third component (a sheath). The presence of the sheath is expected to overcome problems such as slippage of the wrap and inconsistency in the initial wrap angle previously encountered during the manufacture of the HAY. The auxetic performance of conventional and novel systems is investigated and Poisson's ratio data are presented.
20th International Conference on Composite Materials, Copenhagen; 07/2015
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Functional auxetic composite materials can be fabricated from conventional or from auxetic components. The helical auxetic yarn (HAY) is a very recently invented auxetic reinforcing component for composite materials. This paper investigates the Poisson’s ratio behaviour of a further development of the HAY, needed for many practical applications. The 3-component auxetic yarn is based on a stiff wrap fibre (the first component) helically wound around an elastomeric core fibre (the second component) coated by a sheath (the third component). The resultant structure can overcome problems such as slippage of the wrap and changes in wrapping angles previously encountered during the manufacture and utilisation of the two-component HAY. The mechanical performance of conventional and novel systems is investigated; with emphasis on the differences between the engineering and true Poisson’s ratio. The importance of the utilisation of a true tensile modulus and a true Poisson’s ratio is demonstrated. This is the first time reported in the literature that an experimental auxetic effect analysis of HAYs was carried out by comparing true and engineering Poisson’s ratio. We show that depending on the coating thickness of the third component, the 3-component auxetic system can demonstrate auxetic behaviour, and the coating thickness can be employed as a new design parameter to tailor both the Poisson’s ratio and modulus of this novel composite reinforcement for a wide range of applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Negative linear compressibility (NLC) is still considered an exotic property, only observed in a few obscure crystals. The vast majority of materials compress axially in all directions when loaded in hydrostatic compression. However, a few materials have been observed which expand in one or two directions under hydrostatic compression. At present, the list of materials demonstrating this unusual behaviour is confined to a small number of relatively rare crystal phases, biological materials, and designed structures, and the lack of widespread availability hinders promising technological applications. Using improved representations of elastic properties, this study revisits existing databases of elastic constants and identifies several crystals missed by previous reviews. More importantly, several common materials—drawn polymers, certain types of paper and wood, and carbon fibre laminates—are found to display NLC. We show that NLC in these materials originates from the misalignment of polymers/fibres. Using a beam model, we propose that maximum NLC is obtained for misalignment of 26°. The existence of such widely available materials increases significantly the prospects for applications of NLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper examines the mechanism of infiltration by capillary flow of epoxy resin into vertically-aligned carbon nanotube forests. The resin viscosity during cure was characterized by rheometry. Carbon nanotube forests were brought into contact with resin at a range of times during cure, therefore at a range of viscosities. The penetration of the resin into the forests was measured using electron microscopy, x-ray micro-computed tomography and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, the latter relying on a chromium-complex dye additive which acts as a marker for the presence of resin. Experimental results were compared to a simulation based on the Implicit Lucas-Washburn equation for capillary flow. It was found that prior to the resin gel point, the resin penetrates through the full height of the forest. Close to the gel point, the flow into the forest ceases, leaving unwetted regions of nanotubes. Understanding the relationship between resin flow in nanotube structures and the resin viscosity and curing has important application in the fabrication of nanocomposite materials. This “partial wetting” effect is a key requirement for a previously proposed method for the fabrication of carbon nanotube composites by additive manufacture (AM) which would provide strong interlayer reinforcement combined with the versatility of AM.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Currently, the HT-LS sector is predominantly based around one commercial poly ether ketone (PEK) polymer. Although the combination of polymer and process works well, a lower melting temperature polymeric material, part of the same Poly Aryl Ether Ketone (PAEK) family would be preferable in certain applications. This study presents the optimisation and characterisation of Poly Ether Ether Ketone (PEEK), a polymer which is part of the PAEK family with a 30 ˚C lower melting temperature than PEK. The systematic characterisation of laser sintered samples of PEEK revealed a very good overall performance in comparison with the HP3 PEK material, with no change in storage modulus and only 25 % drop in tensile strength. The possibility of variable building configurations available within the HT-LS system, i.e. reduced, half and full chamber building modes, is examined in relation to the mechanical performances of the components. The effect of the post sintering time, an additional heating phase supplied to the powder bed at every layer, found only in the HT-LS system EOSINT P 800, is also examined
European Polymer Journal 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2015.04.003 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of discontinuous carbon fibre plastics (DCFP) in automotive applications is increasing. The material offers a light weight and stiff alternative to conventional short-fibre glass-reinforced composites such as sheet moulding compounds (SMC). Prohibiting factors to wider utilisation of this material are cost and formability. Carbon moulding compounds available commercially are expensive containing high fibre volume fractions (Vf) which hinders or stops flow during moulding. This study examines the flexural and impact performance of cheaper carbon fibre (CFSMC) and cellulosic SMC grades produced using a standard, polyester, SMC production route where flow during moulding has be retained.
Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites 03/2015; 34(6):437-453. DOI:10.1177/0731684415572437 · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constrained layer dampers (CLD) are in widespread use for passive vibration damping, in applications including aerospace structures which are often lightweight. The location and dimensions of CLD devices on structures has been the target of several optimisation studies using a variety of techniques such as genetic algorithms, cellular automata, and gradient techniques. The recently developed double shear lap-joint (DSLJ) damper is an alternative method for vibration damping, and can be placed internally within structures. The performance of the DSLJ damper is compared in a parametric study with that of CLD dampers on beam and plate structures under both cantilever and simply supported boundary conditions, using finite element analysis. The objective was to determine which damper and in which configuration produced the highest modal loss factor and amplitude reduction for least added mass, as would be important for lightweight applications. The DSLJ tend to be more mass efficient in terms of loss factor and amplitude reduction for cantilevered beam and plate structure, and are competitive with CLD dampers in simply supported beam and plate structures. The DSLJ works well because it has the potential to magnify global flexural deformation into shear deformation in the viscoelastic more effectively than traditional CLD dampers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Materials with a negative Poisson’s ratio are referred to as auxetic. One recently invented example of this is the helical auxetic yarn (HAY). This has been proved to successfully exhibit auxetic behaviour both as a yarn and when incorporated into fabric. The HAY is based on a double-helix geometry where a relatively stiffer ‘wrap’ is helically wound around a compliant core fibre. This paper studies the effect of the interaction between the core and the wrap fibre on the auxetic behaviour of the HAY, including the effect of their relative moduli. Assessment of the Poisson’s ratio of the HAYs has revealed that an elevated difference in component moduli causes the wrap fibre embedding itself into the core fibre, thus decreasing the auxetic effect. Careful determination of an optimum core–wrap moduli ratio where the ratio is high enough to yield an auxetic effect and low enough to prevent the core-indentation effect can lead to the fabrication of a yarn with largest negative Poisson’s ratio.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents an investigation into the properties of Poly Ether Ketone (PEK) components using the commercial high temperature laser sintering system, EOSINT P800. The shrinkage and the mechanical performance of components across the entire build chamber have been tested and a non-linear shrinkage profile has been obtained. The middle of the build chamber recorded the highest degree of shrinkage and the shrinkage in Z direction had the largest variation. The laser sintered components built in X and Y directions recorded a 10% lower tensile strength than the injection moulded samples of the same material where those built in the Z direction showed an approximately 50% decrease in strength in comparison with the injection moulded test specimens. The crystallinity between the skin and the core of the sintered samples was different; varied with the position within the build chamber and coincided with noticeable sample colour changes.
Materials and Design 09/2014; 61:124–132. DOI:10.1016/j.matdes.2014.04.035 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to expand the range of engineering polymers used for laser sintering, this paper examines the morphology, flowability and interparticle interactions of two commercially available poly (ether ether) ketone (PEEK) powders, not yet optimised for the LS process, by comparison with the LS optimised Polyamide (PA) and Polyetherketone (PEK) powdered polymers. The effect of incorporating fillers and additives on the flow behaviour is also analysed. The Particle Size Distribution (PSD) results alone do not allow ranking the powder materials in relation to the flow behaviour. The particle morphology has a stronger influence on the flow characteristics for materials with similar PSDs. The work also provides additional characterization parameters to be considered when analysing LS powders.
European Polymer Journal 08/2014; 59. DOI:10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2014.08.004 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser sintering (LS) of polymers has high potential for growth as a manufacturing technique into a wide range of applications provided the range of engineering polymers available for LS expands and machines and LS process conditions are optimised for such materials.This study is the first investigation into laser sintering of both virgin and used polyether ketone (PEK) powder using a bespoke high temperature (HT) polymer laser sintering machine (known commercially as EOSINT P800). The physico-chemical results reveal that, in spite of polymer degradation, used PEK has a viable processing window for LS manufacturing which, combined with optimisation of specific parameters can successfully lead to manufacture of good quality parts. The proposed sintering mechanism of both, virgin and used powders is supported by the experimental data. The incorporation of 30% used HP3 PEK powder led to an approximately 17% drop in tensile strength.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of material into the void of honeycomb-like structures, such as foam, viscoelastic or particulate filling, has been credited with improving the damping properties of the honeycombs. Optimisation of such damping inserts has been investigated, and indicates that partial occupation of the void could be more efficient, on a density basis, than full filling. The main goal of this study is to explore fully damping in honeycomb cells with inserts from the point of view of minimal increase in density and location of inserts. In this paper, damping of vibrations in the plane is investigated using analytical, finite element and topological optimisation methods to find the best locations of a damping insert within the cell.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two-dimensional regular theoretical units that give a negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) are well documented and well understood. Predicted mechanical properties resulting from these models are reasonably accurate in two dimensions but fall down when used for heterogeneous real-world materials. Manufacturing processes are seldom perfect and some measure of heterogeneity is therefore required to account for the deviations from the regular unit cells in this real-life situation. Analysis of heterogeneous materials in three dimensions is a formidable problem; we must first understand heterogeneity in two dimensions. This paper approaches the problem of finding a link between heterogeneous networks and its material properties from a new angle. Existing optimisation tools are used to create random two-dimensional topologies that display NPR, and the disorder in the structure and its relationship with NPR is investigated.
Mechanics of Materials 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.mechmat.2009.04.008 · 2.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent advances have shown effective reinforcement of a polymer matrix using vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) forests grown using chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Such structures are known to wet readily through capillary interactions to form fully wetted composites that retain the dispersion and alignment of the CNT within the matrix thus overcoming two major problems in CNT composite production. So far VACNT composite fabrication has been limited by available forest size and as a result mechanical characterisation of such materials has been restricted and has generally been conducted using nanoindentation techniques. In this work VACNT composite samples are produced that are of a sufficiently large size to conduct Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) in single cantilever mode allowing macroscale testing of the complete composite sample. Results from experiments are compared to current VACNT composite modelling techniques that consider CNT waviness which is known to exist within such composite samples. Previously the effects of as grown VACNT waviness have been considered detrimental to the overall mechanical properties of these novel composites as analysis has typically been conducted in the axial direction where applied load and VACNT axis are parallel. In this work a positive effect on sample modulus resulting from VACNT waviness has been found in the transverse plane, perpendicular to the CNT axis. Specifically an increase in modulus of over 20% is observed with only a 2 vol.% CNT loading and is in agreement with wavy CNT composite modelling.