[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary duodenal carcinoma is rare. Duodenal mucinous adenocarcinoma (DMA) is even rarer, and its associated manifestations and typical endoscopic or imaging findings are not well characterized. Herein, we report a case of primary DMA in an asymptomatic 58-year-old man who visited our hospital for a regular health screening. Upper endoscopy revealed an approximately 4-cm lesion in the second portion of the duodenum, but the mass was not visualized on computed tomography. Biopsies revealed a tubular adenoma that was subsequently resected. Frozen biopsies demonstrated DMA with a background of low-grade tubular adenoma for which we performed Roux-en-Y duodenojejunostomy and jejunojejunostomy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with DMA in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonoscopy is the current standard method for evaluation of the colon. The diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic safety of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colonic cleansing and preparation. Generally, all these preparations have been demonstrated to be safe for use in healthy individuals without significant comorbid conditions. Based on safety and efficacy concerns, polyethylene glycol (PEG) is most commonly utilized as a bowel preparation solution for colonoscopy. Adverse events in patients receiving PEG are mostly clinically non-significant. However, fatal adverse events rarely have been shown to occur in the few individuals who experience vomiting or aspiration. Anaphylactic shock associated with ingestion of PEG electrolyte solution is an extremely rare fatal complication, and reported mainly in Western countries. Here, we report the first case of anaphylactic shock following the ingestion of PEG solution in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after endoscopic variceal obturation (EVO) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.
A retrospective study was performed on 16 liver cirrhosis patients with gastric variceal bleeding that received EVO with injections of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate at a single center (Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong) from January 2008 to December 2012. Medical records including patient characteristics and endoscopic findings were reviewed. Treatment results, liver function, serum biochemistry and cirrhosis etiology were compared between patients receiving PPIs and those that did not. Furthermore, the rebleeding interval was compared between patients that received PPI treatment after EVO and those who did not.
The patient group included nine males and seven females with a mean age of 61.8 ± 11.7 years. Following the EVO procedure, eight of the 12 patients that received PPIs and three of the four non-PPI patients experienced rebleeding. There were no differences between the groups in serum biochemistry or patient characteristics. The rebleeding rate was not significantly different between the groups, however, patients receiving PPIs had a significantly longer rebleeding interval compared to non-PPI patients (22.2 ± 11.2 mo vs 8.5 ± 5.5 mo; P = 0.008). The duration of PPI use was not related to the rebleeding interval. A total of six patients, who had ulcers at the injection site, exhibited a shorter rebleeding interval (16.8 ± 5.9 mo) than patients without ulcers (19.9 ± 3.2 mo), though this difference was not statistically significant.
PPI therapy can extend the rebleeding interval, and should therefore be considered after EVO treatment for gastric varices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Although current guideline recommends selective use of pre-endoscopic prokinetics to increase diagnostic yield in upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) patients, no data to guide the use of these drugs are available. Aims We aimed to investigate predictive factors for endoscopic visibility and develop simple and useful strategies for pre-endoscopic prokinetics use in UGIB patients. Methods A total of 220 consecutive patients who underwent upper endoscopy for suspicious UGIB were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to either a training or a validation set at a 2:1 ratio. Significant parameters on univariate analysis were subsequently tested by a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Results Time to endoscopy and nasogastric aspirate findings were independently related to endoscopic visibility. The CART analysis generated algorithms proposed sequential use of time to endoscopy (≤5.2 vs. >5.2 h) and nasogastric aspirate findings (red blood or coffee rounds vs. clear aspirate) for predicting endoscopic visibility. Prediction of unacceptable visibility in the validation set produced sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 75.8, 67.5, 65.8, and 77.1 %, respectively. Accurate prediction for visibility was identified in 52 of 73 patients (71.2 %). Conclusions Time to endoscopy and nasogastric aspirate findings were independently related to endoscopic visibility in patients with UGIB. A decision-tree model incorporating these two variables may be useful for selecting UGIB patients who benefit from pre-endoscopic prokinetics use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Berberine is a type of isoquinoline alkaloid that has been used to treat various diseases. A neuroprotective effect of berberine against cerebral ischemia has been reported; however, the effects of berberine on apoptosis in relation to reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation under ischemic conditions have not yet been fully evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on global ischemia-induced apoptosis, and focused on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway in the hippocampus using gerbils.
Gerbils received berberine orally once a day for 14 consecutive days, starting one day after surgery. In this study, a step-down avoidance task was used to assess short-term memory. Furthermore, we employed the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to evaluate DNA fragmentation, immunohistochemistry to investigate glial fibriallary acidic protein, CD11b, and caspase-3, and western blot to assess PI3K, Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, and cytochrome c.
Our results revealed that berberine treatment alleviated ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Treatment with berbeine also attenuated ischemia-induced apoptosis and inhibited reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Furthermore, berberine enhanced phospho-PI3K and phospho-Akt expression in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils.
Berberine exerted a neuroprotective effect against ischemic insult by inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The antiapoptotic effect of berberine was achieved through inhibition of reactive astrogliosis and microglia activation. Berberine may therefore serve as a therapeutic agent for stroke-induced neurourological problems.
International neurourology journal 09/2014; 18(3):115-25. DOI:10.5213/inj.2014.18.3.115
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Untreated benign biliary stricture can lead to serious complications including recurrent cholangitis, biliary cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and death. Benign stricture of a postoperative anastomosis site is also a problematic issue after biliary surgery. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) with balloon dilatation is a recently introduced noninvasive therapeutic option for biliary stricture. Guidewire insertion through the stricture site is essential for the success of PTCS treatment. Recently, we treated a difficult case with complete bilioenteric anastomosis stricture that failed to allow passage of the guidewire for balloon dilation. The stricture was treated with artificial bilioenteric fistula using a needle-knife papillotome during the PTCS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the predicting factors of present hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients with positivity for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV).
We analyzed patients who showed positive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) results and performed an HCV RNA test as a confirmatory test at Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong from June 2006 to July 2012. The features distinguishing the groups with positive and negative HCV RNA results were reviewed.
In total, 490 patients were included. The results of the HCV RNA test were positive and negative in 228 and 262 patients, respectively. The index value of anti-HCV, mean age, platelet counts, total bilirubin, prothrombin time international normalized ratio, albumin and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels differed significantly between the two groups. On multivariable analysis, an index value of anti-HCV >10 [odds ratio (OR)=397.27, P<0.001), ALT >40 IU/L (OR=3.64, P=0.001), and albumin <3.8 g/dL (OR=2.66, P=0.014) were related to present HCV infection.
Although EIA is not a quantitative test, considering the anti-HCV titer with ALT and albumin levels may be helpful in predicting present of HCV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence supports the contribution of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance and genetic factors to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated whether genetic interferon gamma polymorphisms were associated with HCC in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B.
We genotyped a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2430561, +874A/T) and a microsatellite (rs3138557, (CA) (n) repeat), located in the first intron of the interferon gamma gene, by direct sequencing and the gene scan method. A population-based case-control study of HCC was conducted and included 170 patients with chronic hepatitis and HCC, and 171 with chronic hepatitis B patients without hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population.
Genotype and allele distributions of the interferon gamma gene SNP were associated with HCC. The frequencies of the AA genotype and the A allele were significantly increased in hepatocellular carcinoma subjects (p < 0.05). Combined analysis using the genotype of rs2430561 and the number of microsatellites revealed that the frequencies of AT-CA12, and TT-CA12 increased significantly in hepatocellular carcinoma subjects (p < 0.0001).
Our results suggest that the interferon gamma gene may be a susceptibility gene and a risk factor for HCC in the Korean population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to determine whether the major HLA-G gene was associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Abnormal HLA-G expression is present in various diseases, such as renal cell carcinoma, asthma and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. Methodology: To investigate the possible association with susceptibility to HCC, 181 chronic hepatitis patients and 180 HCC patients were enrolled in this study. The HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism is located in the 3' untranslated region of the HLA-G gene and was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction. For analysis of genetic data, SNPStats and SPSS 18.0 were used. Logistic regression models were performed to determine the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and p value. Results: Allele and genotype frequencies of the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hepatitis group had a similar pattern, as compared to those in the HCC group. Furthermore, no differences were observed between patients with and without liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: These results suggest that the HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism may not be associated with HCC susceptibility and liver cirrhosis development in the Korean population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Recently, it was reported that postmenopausal women with lower bone mineral density have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. An association between lower bone mineral density and colorectal cancer suggests that colorectal adenoma, which is a precursor of colorectal cancer, may also be associated with lower bone mineral density.
: The aim of this study was to determine the association between colorectal adenoma and osteoporosis.
: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study between January 2007 and May 2011. Women older than 50 years of age who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density and screening colonoscopy at Gangdong Kyung Hee University Hospital in Korea during a routine health checkup were eligible for this study. We performed multivariate analysis adjusted for age, family history of colorectal cancer, alcohol consumption, current smoking, regular aspirin use, exercise, menopause, and postmenopausal hormone use to identify independent predictors for the presence of colorectal adenoma.
: The primary outcome measured was the prevalence of colorectal adenoma according to the bone mineral density level.
: A total of 992 women older than 50 years were assigned to an osteoporosis group (n = 231) or a control group (n = 231) after menopause matching. In univariate analysis, the proportion of colorectal adenoma was significantly higher in the osteoporosis group than in the control group (29.9% vs 20.8%, p = 0.025). Furthermore, osteoporosis (OR = 1.592, 95% CI = 1.004-2.524, p = 0.048) was found to be an independent risk factor for the presence of colorectal adenoma.
: Osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma in women older than 50 years.
Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 02/2013; 56(2):169-74. DOI:10.1097/DCR.0b013e31826f8338 · 3.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several factors affecting the severity and outcomes of diverticulitis have been reported, but there is little research on physician specialty related with this disease. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of diverticulitis depending on physician's specialty.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the most common method of enteral nutrition for patients who require long term artificial nutrition. PEG has been used as a method of nutritional support; however, improvement of nutritional support via PEG has not yet been reported. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of nutritional support via PEG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) levels can predict the stage of diseases or survival rate in patients with resectable colorectal cancer (CRC).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colonoscopists are often hesitant to perform endoscopic polypectomy in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) because of the risk for postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB). However, little is known about the risk of PPB in these patients.
We performed a retrospective study of patients with early LC who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at a single center between September 2006 and May 2011. We investigated the incidence of immediate PPB (IPPB) and delayed PPB (DPPB) in these patients. In addition, we investigated which LC-related and polyp-related factors were associated with IPPB.
Thirty patients with LC were included in our study, and 29 (96.7 %) of them were classified in Child-Pugh class A or B. The mean prothrombin time was 1.27 ± 0.23, and the mean platelet count was 136.77 ± 106.49 × 10(3)/L. A total of 66 polyps in 30 patients were removed. In terms of IPPB, only 2 (3.03 %) of the 66 removed polyps presented with mild oozing and were controlled by hemostatic procedures using hemoclips. DPPB did not occur in any of the patients in the IPPB or the non-IPPB group. Although the IPPB polyp group was too small to detect statistical significance, the IPPB polyps were larger than the non-IPPB polyps (22.5 ± 10.61 vs. 7.22 ± 3.01 mm), and the gross morphology of both IPPB polyps was the pedunculated type. However, LC-related variables such as platelet counts and Child-Pugh scores did not significantly differ between the IPPB and non-IPPB groups.
In patients with early LC, the risk of postpolypectomy bleeding was acceptably low and there was no case with DPPB. Therefore, polypectomy can be performed with caution. IPPB was associated with the size and the gross morphology of the polyps. However, LC-related variables in patients with early LC did not impact IPPB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was aimed at evaluating the usefulness of box simulators for training novice endoscopists.
An explanation of the goals, contents, and features of the simulator was given to study participants. The participants then received "hands-on training" in gastrointestinal endoscopy techniques using a box simulator. Subsequently, they were asked to answer 19 structured questions about the simulator. Ratings were scored on a scale from 1 to 5 for questions concerning their first impression of the simulator. Questions on the usefulness of the simulator and the training course were answered as "agree", "disagree", or "no opinion".
A total of 32 participants filled out the questionnaire. The mean scores on the simulator's usefulness, features, and realistic movements before the training were between 1.5 and 2.0. There were no significant differences between the mean values of the scores given by novice users compared to non-novice users. However, after receiving training on the simulator, 90.6% of the participants considered the box simulator a generally useful tool for learning basic endoscopic techniques, and 90.6% agreed that the simulator was useful for improving hand-eye coordination.
Box simulators may be useful for training novice endoscopists in basic gastrointestinal endoscopic techniques.
Yonsei medical journal 03/2012; 53(2):304-9. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.2.304 · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Difficult cannulation is a well known risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis. This study evaluated the outcomes of needle-knife fistulotomy (NKF) used prior to being faced with difficult biliary cannulation.
Patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the purpose of biliary endotherapy between January 2007 and December 2008 were eligible for this study; 218 patients were recruited. Biliary cannulation was performed only by a standard catheter or a pull type papillotome, without wire-guided assistance in all patients. If selective cannulation was not achieved within five cannulation attempts, NKF was performed, and the results were compared with the easy cannulation group that succeeded biliary cannulation within five attempts.
Needle-knife fistulotomy (NKF) was performed in 72 (33.0%) of the 218 patients. The total success rate of the ERCP was 98.2% (214/218), and for the NKF group the success rate was 94.4% (68/72). The rate of complications in patients with NKF did not increase compared to patients in the easy cannulation group (P > 0.05): 4.2% (3/72) versus 3.4% (5/146) for acute pancreatitis, 6.9% (5/72) versus 6.8% (10/146) for bleeding, and 1.4% (1/72) versus 0% (0/146) for perforation, respectively.
Our results suggest that the use of NKF for biliary cannulation might be safe and effective. Therefore, in experienced hands, early use of NKF might be recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present photochemical-induced pancreatic necrosis (PIPN) as a novel induction method for studying pancreatic regeneration in an animal model.
Photosensitive Rose Bengal was injected through the femoral vein in rats, followed by illumination of the surface of the pancreas with a cool halogen light for a period of 20 min. At 3, 6, and 24 h, and 7, 10, 14, and 20 days, experimental animals were sacrificed; all the animals received intravenous injection with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) 1 h prior to sacrifice.
At 3-6 h of induction of PIPN, pancreatic necrosis was superficially observed in the illuminated field. At 24 h, there was a slight increase in the depth and width of the lesion along with appearance of vascular congestion and thrombosis in the lesion. On days 7-10, the area of illumination was totally replaced by necrotic pancreatic tissue, inflammatory cell infiltrates, and newly appearing cellular components, including mesenchymal and epithelial cells, which formed tubular complexes. On day 14, clusters of tubular complexes intermingled with acinar cells, which were proven as newly formed acinar tissue by BrdU staining. On day 20, all the lesions had returned to a normal state of pancreatic tissue.
This study demonstrates the potential of PIPN as a valuable method for production of an animal model for studying healing processes or regeneration of pancreatic tissue after injury.