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Publications (3)12.06 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Navitoclax (ABT-263), a Bcl-2 family inhibitor and ABT-199, a Bcl-2 selective inhibitor, are high molecular weight, high logP molecules that show low solubility in aqueous media. While these properties are associated with low oral bioavailability (F), both navitoclax and ABT-199 showed moderate F in preclinical species. The objective of the described study was to determine if lymphatic transport contributes to the systemic availability of navitoclax and ABT-199 in dogs. The IV pharmacokinetics of navitoclax and ABT-199 were determined in intact (non-cannulated) dogs. In oral studies, tablets (100 mg) of navitoclax and ABT-199 were administered to both intact and thoracic lymph duct cannulated (TDC) dogs. The clearance of navitoclax and ABT-199 was low; 0.673 and 0.779 mL/min/kg, respectively. The volume of distribution of both compounds was low (0.5-0.7 L/kg). The half-life of navitoclax and ABT-199 were 22.2 and 12.9 h, respectively. The F of navitoclax and ABT-199 were 56.5 and 38.8%, respectively in fed intact dogs. In fed TDC dogs, 13.5 and 4.67% of the total navitoclax and ABT-199 dose were observed in lymph with the %F of navitoclax and ABT-199 of 21.7 and 20.2%, respectively. The lower lymphatic transport of ABT-199 corresponds to the lower overall %F of ABT-199 vs navitoclax despite similar systemic availability via the portal vein (similar % F in TDC animals). This is consistent with the higher long chain triglyceride solubility of navitoclax (9.2 mg/mL) vs. ABT-199 (2.2 mg/mL). In fasted TDC animals, lymph transport of navitoclax and ABT-199 decreased by 1.8-fold and 10-fold, respectively.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 11/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many pharmaceutically active compounds are weak electrolytes and are ionizable in the pH range experienced throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Changes in protonation state due to pH changes in the gut can have dramatic effects on solubility, dissolution, and permeation through biological barriers. Preclinical assessment of the pH-dependence of oral absorption is critical for compounds possessing pH-dependent solubility. Here we examine pH-dependent solubility and oral exposure in rat for three model compounds, dasatinib, ketoconazole, and mefenamic acid. Dasatinib and ketoconazole are both weak bases, while mefenamic acid is a carboxylic acid. The effects of gastric pH modulators, pentagastrin and famotidine, were investigated in rat PK studies to assess the applicability of using the rat to evaluate the risk of pH-dependent oral exposure for ionizable compounds. Dasatinib showed similar exposure between control and pentagastrin-pretreated groups, and 4.5-fold lower AUC in famotidine-pretreated rats. Ketoconazole showed a 2-fold increase in AUC in pentagastrin-treated rats relative to control, and 4.5-fold lower AUC in famotidine treated rats, relative to the pentagastrin group. Mefenamic acid showed highly similar exposures among control, pentagastrin-pretreated, and famotidine-pretreated groups. The rat model was shown to be useful for compounds displaying pH-dependent solubility and oral absorption that may be affected by gastric pH modulators.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 08/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (R)-N-(3-(6-(4-(1,4-dimethyl-3-oxopiperazin-2-yl)phenylamino)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydropyrazin-2-yl)-2-methylphenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide (GDC-0834) is a potent and selective inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), investigated as a potential treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. In vitro metabolite identification studies in hepatocytes revealed predominant formation of an inactive metabolite (M1) via amide hydrolysis in human. The formation of M1 appeared to be NADPH-independent in human liver microsomes. M1 was found in only minor to moderate quantities in plasma from preclinical species dosed with GDC-0834. Human clearance predictions using various methodologies resulted in estimates ranging from low to high. In addition, GDC-0834 exhibited low clearance in PXB chimeric mice with humanized liver. Uncertainty in human pharmacokinetic prediction and high interest in a BTK inhibitor for clinical evaluation prompted an investigational new drug strategy, in which GDC-0834 was rapidly advanced to a single-dose human clinical trial. GDC-0834 plasma concentrations in humans were below the limit of quantitation (<1 ng/ml) in most samples from the cohorts dosed orally at 35 and 105 mg. In contrast, substantial plasma concentrations of M1 were observed. In human plasma and urine, only M1 and its sequential metabolites were identified. The formation kinetics of M1 was evaluated in rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes in the absence of NADPH. The maximum rate of M1 formation (V(max)) was substantially higher in human compared with that in other species. In contrast, the Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) was comparable among species. Intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) of GDC-0834 from M1 formation in human was 23- to 169-fold higher than observed in rat, dog, and monkey.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2011; 39(10):1840-9. · 3.74 Impact Factor