[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary intake of whole grains reduces the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In an earlier study, we showed that Panicum miliaceum L. extract (PME) exhibited the highest anti-lipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells among extracts of nine different cereal grains tested. In this study, we hypothesized that PME in the diet would lead to weight loss and augmentation of hyperlipidemia by regulating fatty acid metabolism. PME was fed to ob/ob mice at 0%, 0.5%, or 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks. After the experimental period, body weight changes, blood serum and lipid profiles, hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression, and white adipose tissue (WAT) fatty acid composition were determined. We found that the 1% PME diet, but not the 0.5%, effectively decreased body weight, liver weight, and blood triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (P < 0.05) compared to obese ob/ob mice on a normal diet. Hepatic lipogenic-related gene (PPARα, L-FABP, FAS, and SCD1) expression decreased, whereas lipolysis-related gene (CPT1) expression increased in animals fed the 1% PME diet (P < 0.05). Long chain fatty acid content and the ratio of C18:1/C18:0 fatty acids decreased significantly in adipose tissue of animals fed the 1% PME diet (P < 0.05). Serum inflammatory mediators also decreased significantly in animals fed the 1% PME diet compared to those of the ob/ob control group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PME is useful in the chemoprevention or treatment of obesity and obesity-related disorders.
Nutrition research and practice 12/2011; 5(6):511-9. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To investigate whether there are anti-adipogenic activities in various Korean cereals, we assessed water extracts of nine cereals. The results showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, Setaria italica Beauvois, or Panicum miliaceum L. extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as determined by measuring oil red-O staining, triglyceride accumulation, and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Among the nine cereals, P. miliaceum L. showed the highest anti-adipogenic activity. The effects of P. miliaceum L. on mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α were evaluated, revealing that the extract significantly decreased the expression of these genes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, P. miliaceum L. extract changed the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in adipocytes, which is related to biological activity and cell characteristics. These results suggest that some cereals efficiently suppress adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In particular, the effect of P. miliaceum L. on adipocyte differentiation is associated with the downregulation of adipogenic genes and fatty acid accumulation in adipocytes.
Nutrition research and practice 06/2011; 5(3):192-7. · 0.97 Impact Factor