[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analyzed factors affecting consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits in Korean adolescents.
Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits, general characteristics, meal, health, and other variables were analyzed for a total of 147,047 adolescents who participated in the KYRBWS (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey) conducted in 2006 and 2011 by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits more than once a day significantly decreased in 2011 compared to 2006 based on Chi-square test conducted for every factor employed in the study. Analysis of factors showed that consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits were reduced in both study years as subjective income decreased, whereas intake frequencies increased with mother's education level and reduction of adolescent stress level.
In general, consumption frequencies of vegetables and fruits decreased in 2011 compared to those in 2006. Thus, future research needs to improve dietary guidelines for nutrition education in order for students to recognize the importance of food consumption and necessity of increasing daily serving sizes of vegetables and fruits for their balanced consumption.
Nutrition research and practice 08/2015; 9(4):411-9. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2015.9.4.411 · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to review Byung-Kwa-Ryu recipes in old cookbooks of the head & noble family (Jong-Ga). As for details and classification, we examined the materials and recipes of Byung-Kwa-Ryu. To accomplish this, old cookbooks of the head & noble family ("Soowoonjabbang", "Eumsikdimibang", "Onjubub", and "Jusiksiui") were reviewed. The introduced Byung-Kwa-Ryu recipes numbered 47 total; four from "Soowoonjabbang", 18 from "Eumsikdimibang", nine from "Onjubub", and 16 from "Jusiksiui". We classified the foods (Byung-Kwa_Ryu) into two categories, Tteok-Ryu (Korean rice cake) and Kwa-Jung-Ryu (Korean traditional cookie), on the basis of previous studies. These were further classified into 11 categories: Tteok-Ryu (Jjin-tteok, Salmeun-tteok, Chin-tteok, Jijin-tteok), Kwa-Jung-Ryu (Yumilkwa, Yukwa, Jeongkwa, Dasik, Kwapyun, Dang (Yeot), and others. The most common Byung-Kwa-Ryu type was Jjin-tteok in Tteok-Ryu (14). The next most common Byung-Kwa-Ryu types were Yukwa in Kwa-Jung-Ryu (6) and Yumilkwa in Kwa-Jung-Ryu (5).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated consumer perception and purchase behavior regarding Han-gwa (traditional Korean confection) in housewives residing in the Seoul and Gyeonggi area. This study was conducted by self-administered questionnaires. Out of 839 questionnaires, 713 questionnaires (85.0%) were used for statistical analyses including frequency analysis, the Chisquare, and one-way ANOVA. Based on the data collected, independence variables were divided less than 40 years (
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main aim of this study was to investigate side dishes served to guests of head families (Jong-ga) in Korea. In order to conduct of this research, we analyzed two books published by the Rural Development Administration (RDA) on the foods and the stories from head families: "Sharing beyond succession, stories and foods from the head families" and "Aesthetics of Serving". The total number of head families serving foods to guests was 10: 5 from Gyeongsangbuk-do, 2 from Jeollanam-do, 1 from Gyeonggi-do, 1 from Gyeongsangnam-do, and 1 from Chungcheongbuk-do. We classified the foods into 7 categories, staple dishes, side dishes, rice cakes, desserts, beverages, alcoholic beverages and others, on the basis of previous studies. Most foods served to guests were side dishes (119). These were further classified into 14 categories: Guk Tang, Namul, Hwe, Bokkeum, Mareunchan, Gui, Jorim, Pyeonyuk Jokpyoen Suran, Jiim Seon, Jeon Jeok, Jangajji, Kimchi, Jeotgal Sikhae and Jang. The most common side dish was Jangs (17), served by 8 head families. The next most common side dishes were Marenchan (15), Jeon Jeok (14) and Kimchi (11).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was to examine Kwa-Jung-ryu, a traditional Korean confectionery, made by head families. We examined the materials and recipes of Kwa-Jung-ryu, which were classified into Yumilgwa, Yugwa, Jeonggwa, Dasikgwa, Yeot-Gangjeong, Dang (Yeot), and others. There were 13 head families that introduced Kwa-Jung-ryu, two each from Gyeonggi-do, Jeolla-do, and Chuncheong-do, and seven from Gyeongsang-do. There are 33 types of Kwa-Jung-ryu, which averages to about 2.5 types per family. But the Pungsan Ryu, Yeoju Lee, and Andong Kwon families introduced the most Kwa-Jung-ryu with 5 types each. The most popular types of Kwa-Jung-ryu were Yumilgwa, introduced by 7 families (Yakgwa by 6 and Maejakgwa by 1), then Jeonggwa by 6 families (Jeonggwa by 3, Pyeon-gang by 1, and Jeonggwa and Pyeon-gang by 2), and Dasikgwa and other Kwa-Jung-ryu by 5 families (Gotgam-mari by 4 and Seopsansam by 1). Classifying Kwa-Jung-ryu by recipe, the most frequently introduced were 8 types of Jeonggwa-ryu, 7 types of Yumilgwa, 5 types of Dasikgwa, 3 types of Yeot-Gangjeong and Dang (Yeot), and 2 types of Yugwa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As an effort to develop functional food ingredients and to discover the biological activity, the total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, SOD-like activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Fe2+ chelating of Aster scaberwere measured using a 70% ethanol extract and various solvent fractions. As a result, the total phenolic concent was highest in an ethyl acetate fraction of 141.9 mg GAE eq/g and the total flavonoid content was 105.6 mg QUE eq/g. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest in an ethyl acetate fraction of 97.1% at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL (p<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity showed a 86.9% ethyl acetate fraction and a 57.9% butanol fraction at a concentration of 125 μg/mL, and higher than that of positive control (α-tocopherol and BHT) (p<0.05). The SOD-like activity showed 42.8% in an ethyl acetate at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest value of FRAP at 1051.9 μM and a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL (p<0.05). The Fe2+chelating was highest in the 70.1% chloroform fraction at a concentration of 500 μg/mL (p<0.05). There is the highest correlation between DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP (r=0.981) as compared to other antioxidant assays (p<0.01). With these results, we confirmed that the ethyl acetate fraction of Aster scaberhas great antioxidant potential. So it can be expected to be developed into a specific functional food ingredient.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 09/2012; 41(9):1197-1204. DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.9.1197
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quality changes of pre-processed garlic, peeled and chopped, were analyzed during storage at or for 30 days and at for 3 days only for chopped garlic. As storage time increased, Hunter L values decreased and a, b values increased, indicating browning regardless of the pre-process type and storage temperature. Decay and sprouting rates of peeled garlic during storage at significantly increased while those of peeled garlic were maintained during storage at . Weight loss of peeled garlic during storage was greater at than at . Hardness of peeled garlic rapidly decreased by half from 1.04 kg to 0.58 kg by freezing, and it did not significantly change during the storage period. Viable numbers of total aerobic bacteria of peeled and chopped garlic did not significantly change during the storage period at but were reduced at . Total aerobic bacterial count of chopped garlic stored at slightly increased during the storage period. Pyruvic acid content of chopped garlic was almost 2.5 times higher than that of peeled garlic at the initial stage (463.87 and 190.52 , respectively). As storage time increased, pyruvic acid content of peeled garlic increased while that of chopped garlic decreased. These results indicate that pre-process type and storage temperature affected the quality changes of garlic during storage.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 07/2012; 41(7). DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.7.994
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In our previous study, hog millet (HM, Panicum miliaceum L.) water extract showed the highest anti-lipogenic activity among nine cereal types in 3T3-L1 cells. In this study, the effect of hog millet water extract on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet was investigated. Mice were fed a normal-fat diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD containing 1% or 2% (w/w) HM for 7 weeks. Body weight and food intake were monitored during the study period. Insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), fasting lipid profile, hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression determined, and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT) were performed at the study's end. The results indicated that 1% and 2% HM diets effectively decreased liver weights, blood TG and T-cholesterol levels (p<0.05), while the HDL-cholesterol level was increased (p<0.05) compared to HFD-induced steatotsis mice. Hepatic lipogenic-related gene (PPARα, L-FABP, and SCD1) expressions decreased, whereas lipolysis- related gene (CPT1) expression increased in animals fed the 2% PME diet (p<0.05). In addition, mice fed 1% or 2% HM diet had markedly decreased IGTT and HOMA-IR, compared to the those of the HFD-induced hepatic steatosis control group (p<0.05). These results indicated that HM inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation by regulating fatty acid metabolism, and suggested that HM is useful in the chemoprevention or treatment of high fat-induced hepatic steatosis and hepatic steatosis-related disorders including hyper lipidemia, glucose sensitivity, and insulin resistance.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 04/2012; 41(4):501-509. DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2012.41.4.501
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate which food items are perceived as HANSIK (Korean food) in Korea. 562 males and females aged 20-70 were surveyed on 512 most frequently consumed dish items from 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey if they perceive it as HANSIK. Dish items in kimchi, namul · sukchae (cooked and seasoned vegetable) and jeotgal (salt-fermented food) category showed high response rate to be perceived as HANSIK. The response rate of twigim (frying foods) as HANSIK was low showing less than 70%. The response rate as HANSIK for foreign origin foods such as ramen and jjajangmyeon (black bean paste noodle) were lower than 25%. In jang · yangnyum (seasoning) category, doenjang (soybean paste) and gochujang (red pepper paste) showed high response rate as HANSIK more than 90%. Females showed a higher response rate as HANSIK than males for most food items except several items of myen · mandu (noodle and dumpling). The younger age group had higher HANSIK perception on many items of recently consumed foods, especially budae-jjigae (spicy sausage stew) (p < 0.001) and jwipo-jorim (braised dried filefish) (p < 0.001), implying that they already accept the common foods as HANSIK regardless of the origin. These results provide an information on the foods perceived as HANSIK among currently consumed common foods in Korea and these results can be utilized for establishment of HANSIK concept reflecting transition of dietary life in Korea.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential antioxidant activities of different fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina were assayed in vitro. Among several fractions, n-BuOH fraction showed the highest 1,1-di[henyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging (). The results of 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed the concentration dependency and n-BuOH fraction appeared a better result than the other fractions at the same concentrati on in this study. Moreover the total phenol and flavonoid contents of n-BuOH fraction contained the highest level. Additionally, correlation analysis indicated a high correlation between the antiradical activity and the total phenolic and flavonoid contents (p < 0.001). It suggests that n-BuOH fraction obtained from the 70% EtOH crude extract of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina has wide potential for use as a source of antioxidant material.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary intake of whole grains reduces the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In an earlier study, we showed that Panicum miliaceum L. extract (PME) exhibited the highest anti-lipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells among extracts of nine different cereal grains tested. In this study, we hypothesized that PME in the diet would lead to weight loss and augmentation of hyperlipidemia by regulating fatty acid metabolism. PME was fed to ob/ob mice at 0%, 0.5%, or 1% (w/w) for 4 weeks. After the experimental period, body weight changes, blood serum and lipid profiles, hepatic fatty acid metabolism-related gene expression, and white adipose tissue (WAT) fatty acid composition were determined. We found that the 1% PME diet, but not the 0.5%, effectively decreased body weight, liver weight, and blood triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (P < 0.05) compared to obese ob/ob mice on a normal diet. Hepatic lipogenic-related gene (PPARα, L-FABP, FAS, and SCD1) expression decreased, whereas lipolysis-related gene (CPT1) expression increased in animals fed the 1% PME diet (P < 0.05). Long chain fatty acid content and the ratio of C18:1/C18:0 fatty acids decreased significantly in adipose tissue of animals fed the 1% PME diet (P < 0.05). Serum inflammatory mediators also decreased significantly in animals fed the 1% PME diet compared to those of the ob/ob control group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that PME is useful in the chemoprevention or treatment of obesity and obesity-related disorders.
Nutrition research and practice 12/2011; 5(6):511-9. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.6.511 · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The dietary intake of whole grains is known to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. To investigate whether there are anti-adipogenic activities in various Korean cereals, we assessed water extracts of nine cereals. The results showed that treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, Setaria italica Beauvois, or Panicum miliaceum L. extract significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation, as determined by measuring oil red-O staining, triglyceride accumulation, and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity. Among the nine cereals, P. miliaceum L. showed the highest anti-adipogenic activity. The effects of P. miliaceum L. on mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, and the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α were evaluated, revealing that the extract significantly decreased the expression of these genes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, P. miliaceum L. extract changed the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in adipocytes, which is related to biological activity and cell characteristics. These results suggest that some cereals efficiently suppress adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In particular, the effect of P. miliaceum L. on adipocyte differentiation is associated with the downregulation of adipogenic genes and fatty acid accumulation in adipocytes.
Nutrition research and practice 06/2011; 5(3):192-7. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2011.5.3.192 · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish a globalization strategy for Korean food, it is important to ascertain foreign consumer's taste preferences and to evaluate their sensory perceptions of Korean food. In concert with previous studies, the most preferred food were Bulgogi and Galbi. However, respondents showed somewhat different preferences for other foods. Chinese and other Asian participants preferred Galbitang and Samgyetang, while Japanese participants preferred Pajeon, Galbitang and Japchae, and Western participants preferred Galbitang, Mandu and Bibimbap. The most preferred condiment was hot pepper paste (the representative condiment of Korea) and the least preferred one was ginger. Hot pepper paste was preferred most by Japanese participants, while Chinese participants tended not to prefer ginger and other Asian participants excepting those from China and Japan disliked vinegar most. Foreign consumers tended to consider Korean food as sweet, salty and very hot. Chinese participants considered Korean food to be 'plain' and 'light and washy' in taste, while Japanese participants considered Korean food to be 'greasy' and 'thick and sticky'. Chinese participants considered typical servings to be inadequate, while Japanese participants considered the servings as excessive.