[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitral valve disease is a frequent cause of heart failure and death. Emerging evidence indicates that the mitral valve is not a passive structure, but-even in adult life-remains dynamic and accessible for treatment. This concept motivates efforts to reduce the clinical progression of mitral valve disease through early detection and modification of underlying mechanisms. Discoveries of genetic mutations causing mitral valve elongation and prolapse have revealed that growth factor signalling and cell migration pathways are regulated by structural molecules in ways that can be modified to limit progression from developmental defects to valve degeneration with clinical complications. Mitral valve enlargement can determine left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and might be stimulated by potentially modifiable biological valvular-ventricular interactions. Mitral valve plasticity also allows adaptive growth in response to ventricular remodelling. However, adverse cellular and mechanobiological processes create relative leaflet deficiency in the ischaemic setting, leading to mitral regurgitation with increased heart failure and mortality. Our approach, which bridges clinicians and basic scientists, enables the correlation of observed disease with cellular and molecular mechanisms, leading to the discovery of new opportunities for improving the natural history of mitral valve disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the genetic basis of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has now been clearly established, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological processes associated to a specific mutation often remain to be determined. The FLNA gene (encoding Filamin A; FlnA) was the first gene associated to non-syndromic X-linked myxomatous valvular dystrophy, but the impacts of the mutations on its function remain un-elucidated. Here, using the first repeats (1–8) of FlnA as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) as a specific binding partner of this region of FlnA protein. In addition, using yeast two-hybrid trap assay pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed that the MVP-associated FlnA mutations (G288R, P637Q, H743P) abolished FlnA/PTPN12 interactions. PTPN12 is a key regulator of signaling pathways involved in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) crosstalk, cellular responses to mechanical stress that involve integrins, focal adhesion transduction pathways, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Interestingly, we showed that the FlnA mutations impair the activation status of two PTPN12 substrates, the focal adhesion associated kinase Src, and the RhoA specific activating protein p190RhoGAP. Together, these data point to PTPN12/FlnA interaction and its weakening by FlnA mutations as a mechanism potentially involved in the physiopathology of FlnA-associated MVP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a cofactor necessary for the activity of KCNQ1 channels. Some Long QT mutations of KCNQ1, including R243H, R539W and R555C have been shown to decrease KCNQ1 interaction with PIP2. A previous study suggested that R539W is paradoxically less sensitive to intracellular magnesium inhibition than the WT channel, despite a decreased interaction with PIP2. In the present study, we confirm this peculiar behavior of R539W and suggest a molecular mechanism underlying it.
COS-7 cells were transfected with WT or mutated KCNE1-KCNQ1 channel, and patch-clamp recordings were performed in giant-patch, permeabilized-patch or ruptured-patch configuration. Similar to other channels with a decreased PIP2 affinity, we observed that the R243H and R555C mutations lead to an accelerated current rundown when membrane PIP2 levels are decreasing. As opposed to R243H and R555C mutants, R539W is not more but rather less sensitive to PIP2 decrease than the WT channel. A molecular model of a fragment of the KCNQ1 C-terminus and the membrane bilayer suggested that a potential novel interaction of R539W with cholesterol stabilizes the channel opening and hence prevents rundown upon PIP2 depletion. We then carried out the same rundown experiments under cholesterol depletion and observed an accelerated R539W rundown that is consistent with this model.
We show for the first time that a mutation may shift the channel interaction with PIP2 to a preference for cholesterol. This de novo interaction wanes the sensitivity to PIP2 variations, showing that a mutated channel with a decreased affinity to PIP2 could paradoxically present a slowed current rundown compared to the WT channel. This suggests that caution is required when using measurements of current rundown as an indicator to compare WT and mutant channel PIP2 sensitivity.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e93255. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0093255 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Filamin A (FlnA) is an ubiquitous actin binding protein which anchors various transmembrane proteins to the cell cytoskeleton and provides a scaffold to many cytoplasmic signaling proteins involved in actin cytoskeleton remodeling in response to mechanical stress and cytokines stimulation. Although the vast majority of FlnA binding partners interact with the carboxy-terminal immunoglobulin like (Igl) repeats of FlnA, little is known on the role of the amino-N-terminal repeats. Here, using cardiac mitral valvular dystrophy associated FlnA-G288R and P637Q mutations located in the N-terminal Igl repeat 1 and 4 respectively as a model, we identified a new role of FlnA N-terminal repeats in small Rho-GTPases regulation. Using FlnA-deficient melanoma and HT1080 cell lines as expression systems we showed FlnA mutations reduce cell spreading and migration capacities. Furthermore, we defined a signaling network in which FlnA mutations alter the balance between RhoA and Rac1 GTPases activities in favor of RhoA and provided evidences for a role of the Rac1 specific GTPase activating protein FilGAP in this process. Together our work ascribed a new role to the N-terminal repeats of FlnA in Small GTPases regulation and supports a conceptual framework for the role of FlnA mutations in cardiac valve diseases centered around signaling molecules regulating cellular actin cytoskeleton in response to mechanical stress.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
In resistance arteries, diameter adjustment in response to pressure changes depends on the vascular cytoskeleton integrity. Serum response factor (SRF) is a dispensable transcription factor for cellular growth, but its role remains unknown in resistance arteries. We hypothesized that SRF is required for appropriate microvascular contraction.
Methods and results:
We used mice in which SRF was specifically deleted in smooth muscle or endothelial cells, and their control. Myogenic tone and pharmacological contraction was determined in resistance arteries. mRNA and protein expression were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. Actin polymerization was determined by confocal microscopy. Stress-activated channel activity was measured by patch clamp. Myogenic tone developing in response to pressure was dramatically decreased by SRF deletion (5.9±2.3%) compared with control (16.3±3.2%). This defect was accompanied by decreases in actin polymerization, filamin A, myosin light chain kinase and myosin light chain expression level, and stress-activated channel activity and sensitivity in response to pressure. Contractions induced by phenylephrine or U46619 were not modified, despite a higher sensitivity to p38 blockade; this highlights a compensatory pathway, allowing normal receptor-dependent contraction.
This study shows for the first time that SRF has a major part to play in the control of local blood flow via its central role in pressure-induced myogenic tone in resistance arteries.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiac voltage-gated Na+ (Nav) channels are key determinants of action potential waveforms, refractoriness and propagation, and Nav1.5 is the main Nav pore-forming (alpha) subunit in the mammalian heart. Although direct phosphorylation of the Nav1.5 protein has been suggested to modulate various aspects of Nav channel physiology and pathophysiology, native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites have not been identified. In the experiments here, a mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic approach was developed to identify native Nav1.5 phosphorylation sites directly. Using an anti-NavPAN antibody, Nav channel complexes were immunoprecipitated from adult mouse cardiac ventricles. The MS analyses revealed that this antibody immunoprecipitates several Nav alpha subunits in addition to Nav1.5, as well as several previously identified Nav channel associated/regulatory proteins. Label-free comparative and data-driven phosphoproteomic analyses of purified cardiac Nav1.5 protein identified 11 phosphorylation sites, 8 of which are novel. All the phosphorylation sites identified except one in the N-terminus are in the first intracellular linker loop, suggesting critical roles for this region in phosphorylation-dependent cardiac Nav channel regulation. Interestingly, commonly used prediction algorithms did not reliably predict these newly identified in situ phosphorylation sites. Taken together, the results presented provide the first in situ map of basal phosphorylation sites on the mouse cardiac Nav1.5 alpha subunit.
Journal of Proteome Research 10/2012; 11(12). DOI:10.1021/pr300702c · 4.25 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that the structure and function of the mature valves is largely dependent upon how these tissues are built during development, and defects in how the valves are built can lead to the pathological progression of a disease phenotype. Thus, we sought to uncover potential developmental origins and mechanistic underpinnings causal to myxomatous mitral valve disease. We focus on how filamin-A, a cytoskeletal binding protein with strong links to human myxomatous valve disease, can function as a regulatory interface to control proper mitral valve development.
Filamin-A-deficient mice exhibit abnormally enlarged mitral valves during foetal life, which progresses to a myxomatous phenotype by 2 months of age. Through expression studies, in silico modelling, 3D morphometry, biochemical studies, and 3D matrix assays, we demonstrate that the inception of the valve disease occurs during foetal life and can be attributed, in part, to a deficiency of interstitial cells to efficiently organize the extracellular matrix (ECM). This ECM organization during foetal valve gestation is due, in part, to molecular interactions between filamin-A, serotonin, and the cross-linking enzyme, transglutaminase-2 (TG2). Pharmacological and genetic perturbations that inhibit serotonin-TG2-filamin-A interactions lead to impaired ECM remodelling and engender progression to a myxomatous valve phenotype.
These findings illustrate a molecular mechanism by which valve interstitial cells, through a serotonin, TG, and filamin-A pathway, regulate matrix organization during foetal valve development. Additionally, these data indicate that disrupting key regulatory interactions during valve development can set the stage for the generation of postnatal myxomatous valve disease.
Cardiovascular Research 07/2012; 96(1):109-19. DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvs238 · 5.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe a new familial cardiac phenotype and to elucidate the electrophysiological mechanism responsible for the disease.
Mutations in several genes encoding ion channels, especially SCN5A, have emerged as the basis for a variety of inherited cardiac arrhythmias.
Three unrelated families comprising 21 individuals affected by multifocal ectopic Purkinje-related premature contractions (MEPPC) characterized by narrow junctional and rare sinus beats competing with numerous premature ventricular contractions with right and/or left bundle branch block patterns were identified.
Dilated cardiomyopathy was identified in 6 patients, atrial arrhythmias were detected in 9 patients, and sudden death was reported in 5 individuals. Invasive electrophysiological studies demonstrated that premature ventricular complexes originated from the Purkinje tissue. Hydroquinidine treatment dramatically decreased the number of premature ventricular complexes. It normalized the contractile function in 2 patients. All the affected subjects carried the c.665G>A transition in the SCN5A gene. Patch-clamp studies of resulting p.Arg222Gln (R222Q) Nav1.5 revealed a net gain of function of the sodium channel, leading, in silico, to incomplete repolarization in Purkinje cells responsible for premature ventricular action potentials. In vitro and in silico studies recapitulated the normalization of the ventricular action potentials in the presence of quinidine.
A new SCN5A-related cardiac syndrome, MEPPC, was identified. The SCN5A mutation leads to a gain of function of the sodium channel responsible for hyperexcitability of the fascicular-Purkinje system. The MEPPC syndrome is responsive to hydroquinidine.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2012; 60(2):144-56. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.02.052 · 16.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myxomatous dystrophy of the cardiac valves is a heterogeneous group of disorders, including syndromic diseases such as Marfan syndrome and isolated valvular diseases. Mitral valve prolapse, the most common form of this disease, is presumed to affect approximately 2% to 3% of the population and remains one of the most common causes of valvular surgery. During the past years, important effort has been made to better understand the pathophysiological basis of mitral valve prolapse. Autosomal-dominant transmission is the usual inheritance with reduced penetrance and variable expressivity. Three loci have been mapped to chromosomes 16p11-p12, 11p15.4 and 13q31-32, but the underlying genetic defects are not currently known. An X-linked recessive form has been originally described by Monteleone and Fagan in 1969. Starting from one large French family and three smaller other families in which MVP was transmitted with an X-linked pattern, we have been able to identify three filamin A mutations p.Gly288Arg and p.Val711Asp and a 1,944-bp genomic deletion coding for exons 16 to 19. In this review, we describe the genetic, echocardiographic and functional aspects of the filamin-A-related myxomatous mitral valve dystrophy.
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 07/2011; 4(6):748-56. DOI:10.1007/s12265-011-9308-9 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels are tetramers of six transmembrane domain (S1–S6) proteins. Crystallographic data
demonstrate that the tetrameric pore (S5–S6) is surrounded by four voltage sensor domains (S1–S4). One key question remains:
how do voltage sensors (S4) regulate pore gating? Previous mutagenesis data obtained on the Kv channel KCNQ1 highlighted the
critical role of specific residues in both the S4-S5 linker (S4S5L) and S6 C terminus (S6T). From these data, we hypothesized that S4S5L behaves like a ligand specifically interacting with S6T and stabilizing the closed state. To test this hypothesis, we designed plasmid-encoded peptides corresponding to portions
of S4S5L and S6T of the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 and evaluated their effects on the channel activity in the presence and absence
of the ancillary subunit KCNE1. We showed that S4S5L peptides inhibit KCNQ1, in a reversible and state-dependent manner. S4S5L peptides also inhibited a voltage-independent KCNQ1 mutant. This inhibition was competitively prevented by a peptide mimicking
S6T, consistent with S4S5L binding to S6T. Val254 in S4S5L is known to contact Leu353 in S6T when the channel is closed, and mutations of these residues alter the coupling between the two regions. The same mutations
introduced in peptides altered their effects, further confirming S4S5L binding to S6T. Our results suggest a mechanistic model in which S4S5L acts as a voltage-dependent ligand bound to its receptor on S6 at rest. This interaction locks the channel in a closed state.
Upon plasma membrane depolarization, S4 pulls S4S5L away from S6T, allowing channel opening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: KCNQ1 osmosensitivity is of physiological and pathophysiological relevance in epithelial and cardiac cells, but the mechanism involved remains elusive. In COS-7 cells expressing the KCNE1-KCNQ1 fusion protein, extracellular hypoosmolarity and hyperosmolarity modify the channel biophysical parameters. These changes are consistent with hypoosmolarity increasing the level of membrane phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), which in turn upregulates KCNE1-KCNQ1 channels. We showed that increasing PIP(2) levels with a water-soluble PIP(2) analogue prevented channel upregulation in hypoosmotic condition, suggesting a variation of the channel-PIP(2) interaction during channel osmoregulation. Furthermore, we showed that polyamines and Mg(2+), already known to tonically inhibit KCNQ channels by screening PIP(2) negative charges, are involved in the osmoregulatory process. Indeed, intracellular Mg(2+) removal and polyamines chelation inhibited the channel osmoregulation. Thus, the dilution of those cations during cell swelling might decrease channel inhibition and explain the channel upregulation by hypoosmolarity. To support this idea, we quantified the role of Mg(2+) in the osmodependent channel activity. Direct measurement of intracellular [Mg(2+)] variations during osmotic changes and characterization of the channel Mg(2+) sensitivity showed that Mg(2+) participates significantly to the osmoregulation. Using intracellular solutions that mimic the variation of Mg(2+) and polyamines, we were able to recapitulate the current amplitude variations in response to extracellular osmolarity changes. Altogether, these results support the idea of a modulation of the channel-PIP(2) interactions by Mg(2+) and polyamines during cell volume changes. It is likely that this mechanism applies to other channels that are sensitive to both osmolarity and PIP(2).
The Journal of Physiology 09/2010; 588(Pt 18):3471-83. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.195313 · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is a phospholipid that has been shown to modulate several ion channels, including some voltage-gated channels like Kv11.1 (hERG). From a biophysical perspective, the mechanisms underlying this regulation are not well characterized. From a physiological perspective, it is critical to establish whether the PIP(2) effect is within the physiological concentration range. Using the giant-patch configuration of the patch-clamp technique on COS-7 cells expressing hERG, we confirmed the activating effect of PIP(2). PIP(2) increased the hERG maximal current and concomitantly slowed deactivation. Regarding the molecular mechanism, these increased amplitude and slowed deactivation suggest that PIP(2) stabilizes the channel open state, as it does in KCNE1-KCNQ1. We used kinetic models of hERG to simulate the effects of the phosphoinositide. Simulations strengthened the hypothesis that PIP(2) is more likely stabilizing the channel open state than affecting the voltage sensors. From the physiological aspect, we established that the sensitivity of hERG to PIP(2) comes close to that of KCNE1-KCNQ1 channels, which lies in the range of physiological PIP(2) variations.