Halldora Olafsdottir

National University Hospital of Iceland, Reikiavik, Capital Region, Iceland

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Publications (5)9.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Few studies are available on the effectiveness of screening tools such as the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in pregnancy or the extent to which such tools may identify women with mental disorders other than depression. We therefore aimed to investigate the mental health characteristics of pregnant women who screen positive on the EPDS. Consecutive women receiving antenatal care in primary care clinics (from November 2006 to July 2011) were invited to complete the EPDS in week 16 of pregnancy. All women who scored above 11 (screen positive) on the EPDS and randomly selected women who scored below 12 (screen negative) were invited to participate in a psychiatric diagnostic interview. 2,411 women completed the EPDS. Two hundred thirty-three women (9.7%) were screened positive in week 16, of whom 153 (66%) agreed to a psychiatric diagnostic interview. Forty-eight women (31.4%) were diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, 20 (13.1%) with bipolar disorder, 93 (60.8%) with anxiety disorders (including 27 [17.6%] with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]), 8 (5.2%) with dysthymia, 18 (11.8%) with somatoform disorder, 3 (2%) with an eating disorder, and 7 (4.6%) with current substance abuse. Women who screened positive were significantly more likely to have psychosocial risk factors, including being unemployed (χ21 = 23.37, P ≤ .001), lower educational status (χ21 = 31.68, P ≤ .001), and a history of partner violence (χ21 = 10.30, P ≤ 001), compared with the women who screened negative. Use of the EPDS early in the second trimester of pregnancy identifies a substantial number of women with potentially serious mental disorders other than depression, including bipolar disorder, OCD, and eating disorders. A comprehensive clinical assessment is therefore necessary following use of the EPDS during pregnancy to ensure that women who screen positive receive appropriate mental health management.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 02/2014; · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Joint Annual Meeting; 10/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood is not fully treated by psychopharmacological treatment alone. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate a newly developed cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) based group programme, the Reasoning and Rehabilitation for ADHD Youths and Adults (R&R2ADHD), using a randomized controlled trial. 54 adults with ADHD already receiving psychopharmacological treatment were randomly allocated to an experimental (CBT/MED) treatment condition (n = 27) and a 'treatment as usual' (TAU/MED) control condition (n = 27) that did not receive the CBT intervention. The outcome measures were obtained before treatment (baseline), after treatment and at three month follow-up and included ADHD symptoms and impairments rated by independent assessors, self-reported current ADHD symptoms, and comorbid problems. The findings suggested medium to large treatment effects for ADHD symptoms, which increased further at three month follow-up. Additionally, comorbid problems also improved at follow-up with large effect sizes. The findings give support for the effectiveness of R&R2ADHD in reducing ADHD symptoms and comorbid problems, an improving functions associated with impairment. The implications are that the benefits of R&R2ADHD are multifaceted and that combined psychopharmacological and CBT based treatments may add to and improve pharmacological interventions. ACTRN12611000533998 (http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12611000533998.aspx).
    BMC Psychiatry 01/2011; 11:116. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compliance has been mainly researched in the context of custodial interrogation and peer pressure to commit offences. In the present study compliance was studied in relation to adult romantic attachment. It was hypothesized that the relationship between compliance and romantic attachment would be strongest with maladaptive attachment and lowest with secure attachment. Three hundred and seventy seven pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Primary Health Care Centres completed the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale (GCS), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Multi-item measure of adult Romantic Attachment, which consisted of Anxious and Avoidant dimensions (and additional quadrant framework consisting of Secure, Preoccupied, Dismissing, and Fearful attachment types). Compliance was significantly related to both Anxious and Avoidant attachment after controlling for self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and stress. A further analysis showed that compliance was highest among the Fearful type and lowest among the Secure type. The findings suggest that compliance is an important factor in relation to maladaptive adult romantic attachment.
    Personality and Individual Differences 04/2008; 45(4):276-280. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neðst á síðunni er hægt að nálgast greinina í heild sinni með því að smella á hlekkinn View/Open Í þessari grein er fjallað um rannsóknir á algengi og afleiðingum fæðingarþunglyndis ásamt helstu áhrifaþáttum í þróun þess. Margar rannsóknir á fæðingarþunglyndi hafa verið gerðar undanfarin ár. Algengi þess er talið vera frá 10 til 15% sem er svipað og hjá konum á sama aldri sem ekki eru þungaðar. Einkenni fæðingarþunglyndis eru þau sömu og í alvarlegu þunglyndi en þurfa skv. DSM-IV-TR greiningarkerfinu að hafa komið fram innan við fjórum vikum frá barnsburð. Ekki eru allir fræðimenn sammála þessu og hafa önnur viðmið verið notuð í rannsóknum. Konur með fæðingarþunglyndi þjást oft af kvíðaeinkennum en kvíði eftir barnsburð hefur lítið verið rannsakaður. Sama má segja um þunglyndi og kvíða á meðgöngu sem eru með helstu áhættuþáttum fæðingarþunglyndis. Aðrir áhættuþættir fæðingarþunglyndis er svipaðir og áhættuþættir alvarlegs þunglyndis en erfiðlega hefur tekist að sýna fram á tengsl hormónabreytinga sem verða í kjölfar barnsburðar við fæðingarþunglyndi. Það er því enn óljóst hvort um undirflokk þunglyndis er að ræða og enn mörgum spurningum ósvarað. Ný íslensk langtímarannsókn sem fór af stað fyrir þremur árum mun leitast við að svara einhverjum af þeim spurningum en fyrstu niðurstöður eru væntalegar á þessu ári. In the past years many studies on postpartum depression have been published. The prevalence of postpartum depression has been reported from 10-15% which is similar to the prevalence of depression in non-pregnant women at the same age. The symptoms of postpartum depression are the same as in major depression but according to DSM-IV-TR they have to appear within four weeks after delivery. However, experts do not agree on that criterion. Many women with postpartum depression suffer from anxiety but only few researchers have focused on the symptoms of anxiety. There is also little research on depression and anxiety during pregnancy, although they are main risk factors for postpartum depression. Other risk factors for postpartum depression are similar to risk factors for major depression and only few studies have been able to show a relationship between postpartum depression and the hormonal changes that occur after childbirth. Therefore the aetiology of postpartum depression remains unclear and many questions are still to be answered. Three years ago an Icelandic longitudinal study was initiated in which some of these questions will be answered and preliminary results are expected within a year.