[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Sand fly saliva helps parasite establishment and induce immune responses in vertebrate hosts. In the current study, we investigated the modulation of Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland antigen expression by seasonal and biological factors. Methods: Sand flies were grouped according to physiological stages such as unfed, fed, semi-gravid, gravid, parous, nulliparous, infected or non-infected with Leishmania major and based on the season in which they were collected. Salivary gland antigens (SGAs) were analyzed using SDS-PAGE and the antibody response against SGAs in Rhombomys opimus was determined by ELISA and Western blot. Results: The highest protein content was found in the salivary glands of unfed sand flies. The saliva content was higher in parous compared to nulliparous, in summer compared to spring, and in Leishmania-infected compared to non-infected flies. The salivary gland lysate (SGL) electrophoretic pattern variations were observed among sand flies with various physiological stages particularly from 4–9 protein bands of 14–70 kDa. The SGL of unfed and gravid flies had extra protein bands compared to fed and semi-gravid sand flies. There was missing protein bands in SGL of parous compared to nulliparous; and in summer compared to spring collected flies. Rhombomys opimus serum reacted strongly with an antigenic band of around 28 kDa in the SGL of all sand fly groups. Conclusion: Certain biological and environmental characteristics of wild populations of vector sand flies affect the protein content and antigenicity of saliva. This might have an important implication in the design of vector-based vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsporidia are known as opportunistic unicellular pathogens, particularly so in individuals with congenital or acquired immunodeficiency. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most common species infecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of E. bieneusi genotypes among immunocompromised patients in Iran. From 329 stool samples referred for parasitological analysis during 2011-2014, 14 samples from immunocompromised patients proving positive for E. bieneusi by SSU rDNA analysis were selected. Genotyping was carried out using specific primers targeting the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region. Subsequently, all samples were sequenced and results queried against the GenBank database. Moreover, sequences were subject to phylogenetic analysis. The expected amplification product was generated for all samples. Genotype D was identified in patients with HIV+/AIDS, transplant recipients, and cancer patients, while Genotype E was identified only in cancer and HIV+/AIDS patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there was no relationship between genotypes and types of immunosuppression, whereas most genotypes D isolates grouped with those described previously from cattle, horses, birds, and humans. E. bieneusi genotype D appears to be the most frequent genotype in immunocompromised patients, while Genotype E was observed only in HIV+/AIDS patients and cancer patients, not transplant recipients.
Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 10/2015; 36. DOI:10.1016/j.meegid.2015.09.022 · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 09/2015; DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0309 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to detect fungi in atherosclerotic plaques and investigate their possible role in atherosclerosis.
Methods: Coronary atherosclerotic plaques specimen were obtained from patients with atherosclerosis. Direct exami-nation, culture, histopathology study, PCR and sequencing were performed to detect/identify the mycotic elements in the plaques. Age, sex, smoking, obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of heart diseases and diabetes were considered and data were analyzed using Chi Square test by SPSS version 15.
Results: A total of 41 specimens were analyzed. Direct examination for fungal elements was negative in all cases but in culture only one specimen grew as a mold colony. The presence of fungal elements were confirmed in 6 and 2 tissue sections stained by Gomori methenamine silver and Hematoxylin and Eosin methods, respectively. Using PCR, 11 cases were positive for fungi. The DNA sequence analysis of six positive specimens which were randomly selected revealed fungi as Candida albicans (n=3), Candida guilliermondii (n=2) and Monilia sp. (n=1).
Conclusion: A significant association between the presence of fungi in atherosclerotic plaques and severity of athero-genesis and atherosclerotic disease was not found. This could be due to limited numbers of patients included in our study. However, the presence of fungal elements in 26.8% of our specimens is considerable and the results does not exclude the correlation between the presence of fungi with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.
Iranian Journal of Public Health 08/2015; 44(8):1121-1125. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female sand flies of subgenus Adlerius are considered as probable vectors of visceral leishmaniasis in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the morphological and genotypic variations in the populations of this subgenus in the country.
Sand flies collected using sticky traps from 17 provinces during 2008-2010. The morphometric measurements were conducted with an Ocular Micrometer. Data was analyzed by SPSS. The Cytb gene was used to estimate population genetic diversity and identify the female specimens. UPGMA phenetic tree was used for DNA haplotypes of Cytb gene.
Six species of subgenus Adlerius identified from which one species, P. (Adlerius) kabulensis, is new record. The identification key is provided for males. Results revealed the molecular systematic in the species of subgenus Adlerius and determine the relationship of three females of P. comatus, P. balcanicus and P. halepensis.
The positions of three females and the males in the UPGMA tree are correct and the similarities among them confirm our results. The branches of each species are not genetically distinct which justify the overlapping morphological characters among them. Molecular sequencing of Cytb-mtDNA haplotypes can be used for female identification for different species of subgenus Adlerius in Iran.
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases 06/2015; 9(1):84-97. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic fungi worldwide, which can infect the skin, hair and nails of humans and animals. This genus includes several species that present different features of dermatophytosis. Although, laboratory diagnosis of dermatophytes is based on direct microscopy, biochemical tests and culture, these manners are expensive, time consuming and need skilled staff. Therefore, molecular methods like PCR-RFLP are the beneficial tools for identification, which are rapid and sensitive. Thus, dermatophyte species are able to generate characteristic band patterns on agarose gel electrophoresis using PCR-RFLP technique, which leads to successful identification at the species level within a 5-hour period.
The purpose of this study was to study inter- and intraspecific genomic variations for identification of clinically important dermatophyte species obtained from clinical specimens in Isfahan, Iran using PCR-RFLP.
From March 2011 to August 2012, 135 clinical isolates were collected from infected patients at Isfahan, Iran. ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA was amplified using universal fungal primers. Subsequently, amplified products were digested by the MvaI restriction enzyme. Using discriminating band profiles on agarose gel, dermatophyte species were identified. However, DNA sequencing was used for unidentifiable strains.
The specimens were obtained from skin scrapings (70.3%), nail (24.4%) and hair (5.1%) clippings. Most patients were between 21 - 30 years and the ratio of male to female was 93/42. Trichophyton interdigitale was the commonest isolate (52.5%) in our findings, followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (24.4%), T. rubrum (16.2%), Microsporum canis (2.2%), T. erinacei (1.4%), T. violaceum (1.4%), T. tonsurans (0.7%) and M. gypseum (0.7%) based on PCR-RFLP.
Combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques considerably improves identification of dermatophytes in the species level in clinical laboratories, which can lead to properly antifungal therapy and successful management of infections. However, restriction and specificity and sensitivity should be lowered and increased, respectively, to be useful for a wide variety of clinical applications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in immunocompromised patients, in particular among hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) and patients with hematological malignancies.
Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the incidence of PA and utility of molecular methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, four methods including direct examination, culture, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were performed on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens in Tehran, Iran.
Patients and Methods: During 16 months, 46 BAL specimens were obtained from individuals with allogeneic HSCT (n = 18) and patients with hematological malignancies (n = 28). Direct wet mounts with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and culture on mycological media were performed. The molecular detection of Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus was done by amplifying the conserved sequences of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal DNA by nested-PCR and the β-tubulin gene by TaqMan real-time PCR.
Results: Seven (15.2%) out of 46 specimens were positive in direct examination and showed branched septate hyphae; 11 (23.9%) had positive culture including eight (72.7%) A. flavus and three (27.3%) A. fumigatus; 22 (47.8%) had positive nested-PCR and eight (17.4%) had positive real-time PCR. The incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in these patients included proven IPA in 1 (2.2%), probable IPA in 10 (21.7%), possible IPA in 19 (41.3%) and not IPA in 16 cases (34.8%).
Conclusions: The incidence of IPA in allogeneic HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies was relatively high and A. flavus was the most common cause of PA. As molecular methods had higher sensitivity, it may be useful as screening methods in HSCT and patients with hematological malignancies, or to determine when empirical antifungal therapy can be withheld.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification of uncommon species of the clinical isolates of the yeasts by ITS-sequencing
By using advanced detection/identification methods, the list of emerging uncommon opportunistic yeast infections is rapidly expanding worldwide. In the present study, our aim was identifying the rare clinically yeast isolates. Forty nine out of 855 (5.7%) yeast isolates which formerly remained unidentified by PCR-RFLP method were subjected to sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) regions. These species include: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor, Pichia fabianii, Pichia fermentans, Candida famata, Candida inconspicua, Candida maqnoliae, Candida guilliermondii, Candida kefyr, Candida rugosa, Candida lusitaniae, Candida orthopsilsis, and Candida viswanathii. Opportunistic infections caused by rare yeasts have increased in recent decade and some of these yeasts may resistant to some antifungals. Conventional methods could not definitely identify all yeast species, thus correct identification of yeasts using modern and reliable methods is essential.
58th Annual Meeting of JSMM, Yokohma, Japan; 11/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Dermatophytes are taxonomically classified in the genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton. Pleomorphism, cultural variability, slow growth and sporulation, and the need for additional physiological tests make dermatophytes notoriously difficult to identify. The present study aimed to compare the results of morphological and molecular identification of certain groups of clinical isolates of dermatophytes with a view to evaluating the accuracy of molecular methods.
Patients and methods:
For each sample, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA region was amplified using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. PCR products were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis using the enzyme MvaI and isolate identification was performed by comparing the electrophoretic RFLP patterns with reference profiles obtained previously. Finally, paired comparative analyses of molecular and conventional methods were performed.
While morphology results from routine daily reports of the laboratories indicated that 18 (6.8%) and 136 (52.10%) of the isolates were T. rubrum and T. interdigitale, respectively, PCR-RFLP results suggested that T. rubrum was the most common etiological agent of ringworm accounting for 94 (36.01%), followed by T. interdigitale accounting for 71 (27.20%). Interestingly, 80.8% out of the 94 isolates identified as T. rubrum by molecular testing had been identified by morphological examination as belonging to different species, such as T. interdigitale (75.5%), E. floccosum (2.1%) and M. canis, T. verrucosum, and T. tonsurans (each 1.06%). Ten strains out of 261 (T. interdigitale, n=8; E. floccosum, n=2) had been defined as unknown species by morphological tests.
An unexpected high percent of isolates identified as T. interdigitale by conventional methods were in effect T. rubrum shown by PCR-RFLP, and regarding the necessity of correct identification of dermatophytes recovered from different clinical forms of the infection, we highly recommend ITS-sequencing or ITS-RFLP of the isolates, particularly for epidemiological research studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectives: Pulmonary aspergillosis (PA) is one of the most serious complications in different patients, in particular among immunocompromised individuals. In contrast, PA occurs very infrequently in immunocompetent patients. However, in this study, immunocompetent patients were evaluated for PA by conventional and molecular methods.
Materials and methods: Two hundred and fifteen BAL specimens obtained from the immunocompetent patients. The specimens were evaluated by routine mycological methods, nested-PCR on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and TaqMan real-time PCR targeted beta-tubulin (β–TUB) gene.
Results: Of the 215 specimens, 6 (2.8%) were positive (septate hyphae) in direct examination, 21 (9.8%) had positive culture including 10 A. flavus, 3 A. fumigatus, one A. niger, one A. terreus, 5 mixed A. flavus/A. niger and one Penicillium spp. sixty (27.9%) specimens had positive nested-PCR with A. flavus and 33 (15.3%) with A. fumigatus specific primers. Only 6 (2.8%) had positive real-time PCR for A. flavus and 3 (1.4%) for A. fumigatus.
Conclusion: Positive results of the nested-PCR technique were too high that may reflect contamination. In addition, although the positive results of routine mycological methods and real-time PCR were not significant, but the patients with pulmonary disorders should be followed by further investigations to rapidly confirm the diagnosis.
8th International Congress of Clinical Microbiology, Tabriz; 09/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nosocomial infections by Aspergillus species are associated with constructions and increased dust loads in hospital indoors. Our main object was to find the environmental sources of Aspergillus species causing hospital acquired infections.
The clinical and environmental samplings were performed during 18 months from spring 2010 to summer 2011 in Imam educational hospital, Urmia, Iran. A morphological diagnosis was performed including microscopic characterization of isolated aspergillus from cultured specimens and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the identification in the level of species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA - PCR RAPD-PCR using random primers for rDNA gene was performed to compare Aspergillus isolates of clinical cases with the relevant environmental sources.
Use of RAPD method resulted various differential patterns, so that some Aspergillus isolates from the clinical and hospital indoor were completely matched (matched pairs) and some other Aspergillus isolates were not matched. In the case of matched pairs, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus isolated from broncoalveolar lavage and sinus discharge were relevant to those of air conditioner and walls surfaces, respectively.
The hospital sources for the Aspergillus clinical isolates included air condition and walls. RAPD-PCR analysis can play a trivial role to find the hospital sources of Aspergillus clinical isolates.
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 09/2014; 17(9):646-50. · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we attempted to modify the PCR-RFLP method using restriction enzyme MwoI for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species. Our subjects included nine standard Aspergillus species and 205 Aspergillus isolates of approved hospital acquired infections and hospital indoor sources. First of all, Aspergillus isolates were identified in the level of species by using morphologic method. A twenty four hours culture was performed for each isolates to harvest Aspergillus mycelia and then genomic DNA was extracted using Phenol-Chloroform method. PCR-RFLP using single restriction enzyme MwoI was performed in ITS regions of rDNA gene. The electrophoresis data were analyzed and compared with those of morphologic identifications. Total of 205 Aspergillus isolates included 153 (75%) environmental and 52 (25%) clinical isolates. A. flavus was the most frequently isolate in our study (55%), followed by A. niger 65(31.7%), A. fumigatus 18(8.7%), A. nidulans and A. parasiticus 2(1% each). MwoI enabled us to discriminate eight medically important Aspergillus species including A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus as the most common isolated species. PCR-RFLP method using the restriction enzyme MwoI is a rapid and reliable test for identification of at least the most medically important Aspergillus species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the resolving power of the beta tubulin protein-coding gene (BT2) for systematic study of dermatophyte fungi. Initially, 144 standard and clinical strains belonging to 26 species in the
genera Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton were identified by internal transcribe spacer (ITS) sequencing. Subsequently, BT2 was partially amplified in all strains, and sequence analysis performed after construction of a BT2 database that showed length ranged from approximately 723 (T. ajelloi) to 808 nucleotides (M. persicolor) in different species. Intraspecific sequence variation was found in some species, but T. tonsurans, T. equinum, T. concentricum, T. verrucosum, T. rubrum, T. violaceum, T. eriotrephon, E. floccosum, M. canis, M. ferrugineum, and M. audouinii were invariant. The sequences were found to be relatively conserved among different strains of the same species. The species
with the closest resemblance were Arthroderma benhamiae and T. concentricum and T. tonsurans and T. equinum with 100% and 99.8% identity, respectively; the most distant species were M. persicolor and M. amazonicum. The dendrogram obtained from BT2 topology was almost compatible with the species concept based on ITS sequencing, and similar clades and species were distinguished
in the BT2 tree. Here, beta tubulin was characterized in a wide range of dermatophytes in order to assess intra- and interspecies variation
and resolution and was found to be a taxonomically valuable gene.
Medical Mycology 07/2014; 52(7). DOI:10.1093/mmy/myu033 · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+)/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+)/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.
Stool samples were collected from HIV(+)/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5). Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.
From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.
E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.
Iranian Journal of Parasitology 06/2014; 9(2). · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur in only 7 countries, including Iran. Leishmania tropica is the main cause of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. In order to study the heterogeneity and phylogeny of L. tropica in southern Iran, a total of 61 isolates were obtained from Bam district and the cities Kerman and Shiraz. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from the ribosomal DNA locus was amplified and then analysed by sequencing. Analysis of the ITS sequences showed four haplotypes in the isolates, including 3 haplotypes among the 58 isolates from the south eastern region, including Bam district and Kerman city, and 2 haplotypes among the 3 isolates from Shiraz city. The results showed a monophyletic structure for the south eastern population. In comparison to GenBank sequences of L. tropica from different countries, most of the southeast Iranian and Indian isolates are comprised in one cluster, while isolates from other countries and few other Iranian isolates group in a different cluster. Analysis of ITS sequences of south eastern L. tropica showed a homogeneous population which could be the basis for other molecular epidemiology studies using more discriminative markers and tracing possible changes in the population structure of L. tropica.