[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last four decades, occupational stress researchers have given considerable attention to the potential correlates and consequences of workload. In the current study, we use meta-analysis (overall k = 336) to quantitatively review the workload literature. In analyses of hypothesized correlates, we found that social support was negatively associated (ρ = −.20 for supervisor support; ρ = -.11 for co-worker support) and that trait negative affectivity (ρ = .22), role ambiguity (ρ = .28), role conflict (ρ = .44) and work-family conflict (ρ = .44 for work-to-family conflict; ρ = .20 for family-to-work conflict) were each positively associated with workload. Analyses examining hypothesized outcome variables suggest that workload is negatively associated with several indices of psychological and physical well-being (ρs were generally in the -.20s and -.30s), and affective organizational commitment (ρ = -.11), and is positively associated with turnover intention (ρ = .16) and absenteeism (ρ = .07).
Work and Stress 04/2015; 29(2):95-113. DOI:10.1080/02678373.2015.1033037 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Employees have limited personal time to engage in activities that enable them to recover from a demanding work environment and perform at a high level. To evaluate the importance of non-work creative activity, we conducted two studies that examine the relationships between non-work creative activity, recovery experiences, and performance-related behaviours at work. Study 1 included employees who provided self-rated performance-related outcomes, whereas Study 2 included employees with other-rated (co-workers and subordinates) performance-related outcomes. Creative activity was positively associated with recovery experiences (i.e., mastery, control, and relaxation) and performance-related outcomes (i.e., job creativity and extra-role behaviours). The mediating effects of recovery experiences were examined to better understand the underlying processes involved in the relationship between creative activity and performance-related outcomes. Creative activity was found to have both indirect effects and direct effects on performance-related outcomes, but the effects varied by the type of performance-related outcome. The results indicate that organizations may benefit from encouraging employees to consider creative activities in their efforts to recover from work.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coping was hypothesized to explain additional variance in first year grade point averages (GPAs) controlling for cognitive ability and conscientiousness. First year GPAs were assessed as criterion for performance in the first year. Results indicate active coping, denial, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol disengagement are related to first year GPA. Denial and alcohol disengagement coping strategies were significant predictors and negatively related to first year GPA in the final regression equation controlling for cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Latent growth modeling analysis demonstrated cognitive ability predicted both the intercept and slope of first year GPA. Conscientiousness was a predictor of initial GPA but not change. Lastly, coping was a significant predictor of change in GPA. Implications for research and theory are discussed.
Journal of Applied Social Psychology 08/2013; 43(8). DOI:10.1111/jasp.12120 · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimism and hope—two psychological constructs reflecting positive expectations about one’s future—have garnered considerable research attention and each has been the subject of several narrative reviews. In the current meta-analysis, we examined the optimism–hope relationship and we examined several potential correlates and consequences of optimism and hope. Our results suggest that optimism and hope are distinguishable from each other. Furthermore, both are related to several indices of psychological and physical well-being and both are empirically distinguishable from other personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model characteristics and trait affectivity. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on optimism and hope.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study explored individual differences in ability and motivation factors of retention in first-year college students. We used discrete-time survival mixture analysis to model university retention. Parents' education, gender, American College Test (ACT) scores, conscientiousness, and trait affectivity were explored as predictors of retention. Results indicate gender, ACT scores, and conscientiousness are significant predictors of retention, but parents' education level was not a significant predictor. Positive affectivity and negative affectivity also were significant predictors of university retention when added to the model. Interestingly, once affectivity was added to the model, conscientiousness was no longer a significant predictor, indicating conscientiousness may be an amalgamation of motivation and ability. Implications for research and theory are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study explored the relationship between coping and leadership in a military sample. Data were collected from Air Force officers attending a 6-week professional military education course focusing on leadership development. Correlation analyses illustrate that leadership styles are associated with different styles of coping. Hierarchical regression further demonstrates that transformational leaders use more positive reinterpretation and problem-focused coping strategies and less emotion-focused coping strategies. Transactional leaders utilize more problem-focused coping strategies. Results also demonstrated mixed results on the relationship between transformational leadership and positive reinterpretation.
Military Psychology 01/2012; 24(1):29-47. DOI:10.1080/08995605.2012.639674 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis was conducted on job demands, resources, and attitudes and their relation with burnout in regard to the COR theory. The version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory used was explored as a moderator of the aforementioned variables. Results suggest that higher demands, lower resources, and lower adaptive organizational attitudes are associated with burnout. In particular, results of the current study show stronger relations than previous meta-analysis (Lee & Ashforth, 1996) have suggested. The scale type also provided some evidence of moderation, with stronger effects found in samples that utilized the MBI-HSS. Implications of the findings in relation to the COR theory and future research directions to clarify the relation between job demands, job resources, organizational attitudes and burnout are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study explored the factor structure of engagement and its relationship with job satisfaction. The authors hypothesize that work engagement comprises 3 constructs: vigor, dedication, and absorption. Using structural equation modeling, the authors analyze data from 3 archival data sets to determine the factor structure of engagement. In addition, they examine the hypothesis that engagement and job satisfaction are separate but related constructs, using structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression. The authors test models in which engagement and job satisfaction items loaded onto a single latent variable and 1 in which they loaded onto 2 separate variables. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis indicate engagement has 3 factors. In addition, confirmatory factor analysis and hierarchical regressions indicate engagement and job satisfaction are separate constructs. Last, hierarchical regressions demonstrated the constructs have different relationships with the areas of work-life scale. Implications for theory and research are discussed.
The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied 09/2011; 145(5):463-80. DOI:10.1080/00223980.2011.584083 · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very little is known about the process in which people reappraise a stressful environment or the factors that may influence this process. In the current study, we address the several limitations to previous research regarding stress reappraisals and explore the role of affect on this process. A total of 320 participants (mean age = 20 years, 60% male) completed an increasingly demanding team-based coordination task. Mood and stress appraisals were assessed at three time points using self-report surveys during four different waves of data collection. The longitudinal design enabled us to assess primary and secondary reappraisals (change in appraisals during the experiment), task-irrelevant affect (affect assessed prior to experiment participation), and task-relevant affect (change in affect experienced during the experiment). Guided by the Transactional Theory of Stress, we argue that the relationship between primary reappraisal and secondary reappraisal is an accurate representation of a dynamic stress appraisal process. We found that participants were more likely to engage in the stress appraisal process when they experienced less task-irrelevant positive affect and greater task-relevant positive affect. Both task-irrelevant and task-relevant negative affect were not found to influence the stress appraisal process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The authors evaluated the validity of trust in automation and information technology (IT) suspicion by examining their factor structure and relationship with decision confidence.
Research on trust has burgeoned, yet the dimensionality of trust remains elusive. Researchers suggest that trust is a unidimensional construct, whereas others believe it is multidimensional. Additionally, novel constructs,such as IT suspicion, have yet to be distinguished from trust in automation. Research is needed to examine the overlap between these constructs and to determine the dimensionality of trust in automation.
Participants (N = 72) engaged in a computer-based convoy scenario involving an automated decision aid. The aid fused real-time sensor data and provided route recommendations to participants who selected a route based on (a) a map with historical enemy information, (b) sensor inputs, and (c) automation suggestions. Measures for trust in automation and IT suspicion were administered after individuals interacted with the automation.
Results indicated three orthogonal factors: trust, distrust, and IT suspicion. Each variable was explored as a predictor of decision confidence. Distrust and trust evidenced unique influences on decision confidence, albeit at different times. Higher distrust related to less confidence, whereas trust related to greater confidence.
The current study found that trust in automation was best characterized by two orthogonal dimensions (trust and distrust). Both trust and distrust were found to be independent from IT suspicion,and both distrust and trust uniquely predicted decision confidence.
Researchers may consider using separate measures for trust and distrust in future studies.
Human Factors The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 06/2011; 53(3):219-29. DOI:10.1177/0018720811406726 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study explored predictors of burnout and engagement in 1st-year college students. The theory of conservation of resources was used to create a path model for burnout and engagement. Specifically, the theory suggests that perceptions of demands mediate the relationship between resources and coping strategies. In turn, coping mediates the relationship of demands on the outcomes of burnout and engagement. Results indicate demands partially mediated the relationship between resources and coping strategies. Similarly, coping partially mediated the relationship between demands and burnout and engagement. Results suggest that teaching students adaptive ways of coping and extinguishing maladaptive ways of coping with the academic environment can increase engagement and decrease burnout. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.
The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary and Applied 03/2011; 145(3):211-27. DOI:10.1080/00223980.2011.555432 · 0.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hardiness, which is a multidimensional personality trait that is hypothesized to protect people from the effects of stress, has attracted considerable research attention during the last 30 years. The current study provides a meta-analytic review of hardiness. Specifically, we examined the relationships between the hardiness facets, the relationship between hardiness and other personality variables, as well as the relationships between hardiness and several hypothesized criteria, including stressors, strains, social support, coping, and performance. Our analyses generally suggest that hardiness is: (a) positively related to other personality traits that are expected to protect people from stress, (b) negatively related to personality traits that are expected to exacerbate the effects of stress, (c) negatively related to stressors, strains, and regressive coping, and (d) positively related to social support, active coping, and performance. Regression analyses suggest that hardiness is significantly related to important criteria after the effects of other personality traits (e.g., the Five Factor Model traits) are controlled.
International Journal of Stress Management 11/2010; 17(4-4):277-307. DOI:10.1037/a0020476 · 1.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study explored organizational antecedents of employee engagement in a military organization. A survey was administered to junior military personnel assessing leadership effectiveness, role clarity, organizational culture, and peer group interactions as predictors of engagement. Leadership's influence on engagement was expected to be partially mediated by role clarity and organizational culture. Engagement was predicted to fully mediate the relationship between the aforementioned variables and turnover intentions. Results indicated that leadership's influence on engagement was fully mediated by role clarity and organizational culture. In addition, engagement fully mediated the relationship between all variables and turnover intentions.
Military Psychology 07/2010; 22(3-3):301-310. DOI:10.1080/08995605.2010.492695 · 0.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most burnout research has focussed on environmental correlates, but it is likely that personality factors also play an important part in the development of burnout. Previous meta-analyses, however, have been limited in scope. The present meta-analysis examined the relationship between personality and three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI): emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. Consistent with our hypotheses, self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, positive affectivity, negative affectivity, optimism, proactive personality, and hardiness, each yielded significant relationships with burnout. Type A Personality, however, was only related to personal accomplishment. Furthermore, regression analysis found that core self-evaluations, the Five-Factor Model personality characteristics, and positive and negative affectivity explained significant variance in each of the burnout dimensions. Finally, moderator analyses found several instances in which the strength of personality–burnout relationships depended upon whether burnout was assessed with the Human Services Survey of the MBI or the General Survey version of the MBI. It is concluded that employee personality is consistently related to burnout. Given the practical importance of employee burnout, it is recommended that personality variables be included as predictors in future research on burnout.
Work and Stress 07/2009; 23(3):244-263. DOI:10.1080/02678370903282600 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Organization-based self-esteem (OBSE), which represents employees' beliefs about their own value and competence as organizational members, has attracted much recent research attention. In the current paper, we identified several theoretically based predictors and consequences of OBSE. We then conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationships between OBSE and these variables. Results indicated that several hypothesized predictors, including the work environment and employee dispositions, were related to OBSE. Furthermore, OBSE was related to several hypothesized outcome variables including job satisfaction, organizational commitment, employee health, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviour. As expected, OBSE generally yielded stronger relationships with work-related variables than did general self-esteem and we found evidence that OBSE mediated the relationships between general self-esteem and work-related criteria.