[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The studies of signaling mechanisms involved in the disruption of the cytoskeleton homeostasis were performed in a model of quinolinic acid (QUIN) neurotoxicity in vitro. This investigation focused on the phosphorylation level of intermediate filament (IF) subunits of astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein - GFAP) and neurons (low, medium and high molecular weight neurofilament subunits - NFL, NFM and NFH, respectively). The activity of the phosphorylating system associated with the IFs was investigated in striatal slices of rat exposed to QUIN or treated simultaneously with QUIN plus glutamate receptor antagonists, calcium channel blockers or kinase inhibitors. Results showed that in astrocytes, the action of 100 μM QUIN was mainly due to increased Ca(2+) influx through NMDA and L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCC). In neuronal cells QUIN acted through metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation and influx of Ca(2+) through NMDA receptors and L-VDCC, as well as Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. These mechanisms then set off a cascade of events including activation of PKA, PKCaMII and PKC, which phosphorylate head domain sites on GFAP and NFL. Also, Cdk5 was activated downstream of mGluR5, phosphorylating the KSP repeats on NFM and NFH. mGluR1 was upstream of phospholipase C (PLC) which, in turn, produced diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 3,4,5 triphosphate (IP3). DAG is important to activate PKC and phosphorylate NFL, while IP(3) contributed to Ca(2+) release from internal stores promoting hyperphosphorylation of KSP repeats on the tail domain of NFM and NFH. The present study supports the concept of glutamate and Ca(2+) contribution in excitotoxic neuronal damage provoked by QUIN associated to dysfunction of the cytoskeleton homeostasis and highlights the differential signaling mechanisms elicited in striatal astrocytes and neurons.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present report, we showed that diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)(2) induced in vitro hyperphosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin and neurofilament (NF) subunits in hippocampus of 21 day-old rats. Hyperphosphorylation was dependent on L-voltage dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCC), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate receptors, as demonstrated by the specific inhibitors verapamil, DL-AP5 and MCPG, respectively. Also, dantrolene, a ryanodine channel blocker, EGTA and Bapta-AM, extra and intracellular Ca(2+) chelators respectively, totally prevented this effect. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors by (PhTe)(2) upregulates phospholipase C (PLC), producing inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Therefore, high Ca(2+) levels and DAG directly activate Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (PKCaMII) and protein kinase C (PCK), resulting in the hyperphosphorylation of Ser-57 in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of the low molecular weight NF subunit (NF-L). Also, the activation of Erk1/2, and p38MAPK resulted in hyperphosphorylation of KSP repeats of the medium molecular weight NF subunit (NF-M). It is noteworthy that PKCaMII and PKC inhibitors prevented (PhTe)(2)-induced Erk1/2MAPK and p38MAPK activation as well as hyperphosphorylation of KSP repeats on NF-M, suggesting that PKCaMII and PKC could be upstream of this activation. Taken together, our results highlight the role of Ca(2+) as a mediator of the (PhTe)(2)-elicited signaling targeting specific phosphorylation sites on IF proteins of neural cells of rat hippocampus. Interestingly, this action shows a significant cross-talk among signaling pathways elicited by (PhTe)(2), connecting glutamate metabotropic cascade with activation of Ca(2+) channels. The extensively phosphorylated amino- and carboxyl- terminal sites could explain, at least in part, the neural dysfunction associated with (PhTe)(2) exposure.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 08/2011; 24(10):1754-64. DOI:10.1021/tx200307u · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the effect of different concentrations of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe)(2) on the in vitro phosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) subunits from cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats during development. (PhTe)(2)-induced hypophosphorylation of GFAP and NF subunits only in cerebral cortex of 9- and 15-day-old animals but not in hippocampus. Hypophosphorylation was dependent on ionotropic glutamate receptors, as demonstrated by the specific inhibitors 10 μM DL-AP5 and 50 μM MK801, 100 μM CNQX and 100 μM DNQX. Also, 10 μM verapamil and 10 μM nifedipine, two L-voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (L-VDCC) blockers; 50 μM dantrolene, a ryanodine channel blocker, and the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator Bapta-AM (50 μM) totally prevented this effect. Results obtained with 0.2 μM calyculin A (PP1 and PP2A inhibitor), 1 μM Fostriecin a potent protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor, 100 μM FK-506 or 100 μM cyclosporine A, specific protein phosphatase 2B inhibitors, pointed to PP1 as the protein phosphatase directly involved in the hypophosphorylating effect of (PhTe)(2). Finally, we examined the activity of DARPP-32, an important endogenous Ca(2+)-mediated inhibitor of PP1 activity. Western blot assay using anti-DARPP-32, anti-pThr34DARPP-32, and anti-pThr75DARPP-32 antibodies showed a decreased phosphorylation level of the inhibitor at Thr34, compatible with inactivation of protein kinase A (PKA) by pThr75 DARPP-32. Decreased cAMP and catalytic subunit of PKA support that (PhTe)(2) acted on neuron and astrocyte cytoskeletal proteins through PKA-mediated inactivation of DARPP-32, promoting PP1 release and hypophosphorylation of IF proteins of those neural cells. Moreover, in the presence of Bapta, the level of the PKA catalytic subunit was not decreased by (PhTe)(2), suggesting that intracellular Ca(2+) levels could be upstream the signaling pathway elicited by this neurotoxicant and targeting the cytoskeleton.
Archives of Toxicology 08/2011; 86(2):217-30. DOI:10.1007/s00204-011-0746-6 · 5.98 Impact Factor