Eun Jung Lee

Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea

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Publications (230)635.19 Total impact

  • 06/2015; DOI:10.4132/jptm.2015.04.17
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    ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate the additive effect of the Hedera helix (HH) and Rhizoma coptidis (RC) extracts mixture on antitussive and expectorant activities in animals. The expectorant assay was performed with phenol red secretion in mice trachea. Mice or guinea pigs were randomly divided into groups of 8 each, including negative and positive control groups. After gastric administration of the test extracts in mice, 2.5% phenol red solution (0.2 mL) was intraperitoneally injected. Trachea was dissected and optical density of tracheal secretion was measured. After gastric administration of the test extracts in guinea pigs, the antitussive activities were assessed using a citric acid-induced cough measurement. The extracts of HH and RC significantly increased tracheal secretion and inhibited cough. The mixture of HH and RC extracts in a 1:1 concentration at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed a more potent effect on phenol red secretion (25.25±3.14) and cough inhibition (61.25±5.36) than the individual use of each extracts [phenol red secretion; HH 13.39±4.22 (p=0.000), RC 20.78±2.50 (p=0.010), cough inhibition; HH 9.89±4.14 (p=0.010), RC 30.25±7.69 (p=0.000)]. A 3:1 ratio mixture of HH to RC demonstrated an optimal expectorant effect (p<0.001), and this mixture showed expectorant and antitussive effects in a dose-dependent manner. This study provides evidence for antitussive and expectorant effect of a 3:1 mixture of HH and RC, which may be a useful therapeutic option for respiratory diseases.
    Yonsei medical journal 05/2015; 56(3):819-24. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.3.819 · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 04/2015; 10(4):e0119956. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119956 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis are common causes of spinal infections, their protean manifestation complicate differential diagnosis. The clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics of tuberculous and pyogenic spontaneous spondylodiscitis were compared in this study. This multicenter retrospective study was conducted in 11 teaching hospitals in the Republic of Korea from January 2011 to December 2013. Study subjects included adult patients (≥18 years) diagnosed with tuberculous (n = 60) or pyogenic (n = 117) spontaneous spondylodiscitis. Risk factors for tuberculous spondylodiscitis were determined and their predictive performance was evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors independently associated with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the presence or absence of risk factors was used to generate a risk index to identify patients with increased probability of tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Of 177 patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis (n = 60) were more frequently female, with increased non-lumbar spinal involvement and associated non-spinal lesions, delayed diagnosis, higher serum albumin levels, reduced white blood cell counts, and lower C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels. Among 117 patients with pyogenic spondylodiscitis, the most frequent causative microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus (64.1%). The mean diagnostic delay was significantly shorter, which may reflect higher clinical expression leading to earlier diagnosis. A combination of clinical data and biomarkers had better predictive value for differential diagnosis compared to biomarkers alone, with an area under the curve of 0.93, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 95.0%, 79.5%, 70.4%, and 96.9%, respectively. This study provides guidance for clinicians to predict the causative organisms of spondylodiscitis in uncertain situations and before culture or pathologic examinations. Clinical data and single biomarkers combined can be useful for differential diagnoses between tuberculous and pyogenic spondylodiscitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2015.04.006 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be synthesized in plant tissues when the organism is under stressful conditions. Rice bran byproduct obtained from the milling of brown rice was treated under anaerobic storage with nitrogen at different temperatures (20-60°C) and moisture contents (10-50%) up to 12h. For the GABA synthesis, the storage at 30% moisture content and 40°C appeared optimal. Utilisation of an electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW, pH 3.3) for moisture adjustment and addition of glutamic acid increased the GABA content in rice bran. The maximum GABA content in rice bran (523mg/100g) could be achieved by the anaerobic storage at 30% EOW for 5h at 40°C after an addition of glutamic acid (5mM). This amount was approximately 17 times higher than that in the control (30mg/100g). The use of EOW also prevented bacterial growth by decreasing the colony counts almost by half. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Food Chemistry 04/2015; 172C:657-62. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.107 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: TAS-102 is an orally administered anticancer agent composed of α,α,α-trifluorothymidine (FTD) and thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor (TPI). This study assessed 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine ([(18)F]FLT) uptake after TAS-102 administration. The human colorectal carcinoma cell lines HCT116, HT29, HCT8 and SW620 were exposed to FTD for 2 h, further incubated for 0, 2 and 24 h, and assayed for [(3)H]FLT uptake, nucleoside transport, thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) expression and TK1 activity. Static and 2-h dynamic [(18)F]FLT positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in mice bearing HT29 or SW620 tumours orally administered with vehicle or TAS-102. FTD decreased the viability of all cell lines, whereas increased [(3)H]FLT uptake (P < 0.05). Increased nucleoside transport and/or TK1 expression were observed 24 h after FTD, but not in 0-2 h. Static [(18)F]FLT PET in mice bearing HT29 tumours showed accumulation of [(18)F]FLT in tumours 1 h (day 1) after TAS-102. Two-hour dynamic PET in mice bearing SW620 tumours showed increased influx constant and volume of distribution of phosphorylated [(18)F]FLT on days 1 and 8 (P < 0.05) after TAS-102 with decreased dephosphorylation on day 1 (P < 0.001). Ex vivo studies showed that SW620 tumours after TAS-102 had higher TK1 expression than those with vehicle on days 8 and 15. TAS-102 administration induces an increase in [(18)F]FLT uptake. Mechanisms may involve decreased dephosphorylation of [(18)F]FLT phosphate early after TAS-102 administration. Increased TK1 expression and/or nucleoside transporter may be related to increased [(18)F]FLT uptake at a later time. [(18)F]FLT PET has a potential to assess the pharmacodynamics of TAS-102 in cancer patients.
    Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 03/2015; 75(5). DOI:10.1007/s00280-015-2718-7 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Considering the problems of small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery using traditional viral and nonviral vehicles, a new siRNA delivery system to enhance efficiency and safety needs to be developed. Here human ferritin-based proteinticles are genetically engineered to simultaneously display various functional peptides on the surface of proteinticles: cationic peptide to capture siRNA, tumor cell targeting and penetrating peptides, and enzymatically cleaved peptide to release siRNA inside tumor cell. In the in vitro treatment of poly-siRNA-proteinticle complex, both of the tumor cell targeting and penetrating peptides are important for efficient delivery of siRNA, and the red fluorescent protein (RFP) expression in RFP-expressing tumor cells is notably suppressed by the delivered siRNA with the complementary sequence to RFP mRNA. It seems that the human ferritin-based proteinticle is an efficient, stable, and safe tool for siRNA delivery, having a great potential for application to in vivo cancer treatment. The unique feature of proteinticles is that multiple and functional peptides can be simultaneously and evenly placed and also easily switched on the proteinticle surface through a simple genetic modification, which is likely to make proteinticles appropriate for targeted delivery of siRNA to a wide range of cancer cells.
    Advanced Functional Materials 02/2015; 25(8). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201403680 · 10.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, various functional devices based on printing technologies have been of paramount interest, owing to their characteristic processing advantages along with excellent device performance. In particular, printable metallic electrodes have drawn attention in a variety of optoelectronic applications; however, research into printable metallic nanoparticles has been limited mainly to the case of an environmentally stable Ag phase. Despite its earth-abundance and highly conductive nature, the Cu phase, to date, has not been exploited as an ambient atmosphere-processable, printable material due to its critical oxidation problem in air. In this study, we demonstrate a facile route for generating highly conductive, flexible Cu electrodes in air by introducing the well-optimized photonic sintering at a time frame of 10(-3) s, at which the photon energy, rather than conventional thermal energy, is instantly provided. It is elucidated here how the surface oxide-free, printed Cu particulate films undergo chemical structural/microstructural evolution depending on the instantly irradiated photon energy, and a successful demonstration is provided of large-area, flexible, printed Cu conductors on various substrates, including polyimide (PI), polyethersulfone (PES), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and paper. The applicability of the resulting printed Cu electrodes is evaluated via implementation into both flexible capacitor devices and indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) flexible thin-film transistors.
    Nanoscale 01/2015; 7(9). DOI:10.1039/c4nr06816e · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with poor prognosis. The IGF-1R pathway activates downstream targets that bypass dependency in signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which mediates resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The aim of the present study was to determine the predictive role of IGF-1R expression in the response to EGFR-TKIs of NSCLC patients harboring activating EGFR mutations.
    Lung Cancer 01/2015; 87(3). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2015.01.004 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Irradiation in conjunction with gene therapy is considered for efficient cancer treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), due to their irradiation-promotable tumor tropism, are ideal delivery vehicles for gene therapy. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with radiation and interleukin (IL)-12-expressing MSCs (MSCs/IL12) exerts improved antitumor effects on murine metastatic hepatoma. HCa-I and Hepa 1-6 cells were utilized to generate heterotopic murine hepatoma models. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with irradiation or MSCs/IL12 alone, or a combination. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) expression was assessed in irradiated hepatoma tissues to confirm a chemotactic effect. Combination treatment strategies were established and their therapeutic efficacies were evaluated by monitoring tumor growth, metastasis, and survival rate. IL-12 expression was assessed and the apoptotic activity and immunological alterations in the tumor microenvironment were examined. MCP-1/CCL2 expression and localization of MSCs/IL12 increased in the irradiated murine hepatoma cells. The antitumor effects, including suppression of pulmonary metastasis and survival rate improvements, were increased by the combination treatment with irradiation and MSCs/IL12. IL-12 expression was increased in tumor cells, causing proliferation of cluster of differentiation 8+ T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. The apoptotic activity increased, indicating that the cytotoxicity of immune cells was involved in the antitumor effect of the combined treatment. Treatment with irradiation and MSCs/IL12 showed effectiveness in treating murine metastatic hepatoma. IL-12-induced proliferation of immune cells played an important role in apoptosis of tumor cells. Our results suggest that treatment with irradiation and MSCs/IL12 may be a useful strategy for enhancing antitumor activity in metastatic hepatoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 137(3). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29428 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with mild to severe hearing loss, conventional hearing aids offer limited benefits and several problems with feedback and cosmesis. Middle ear implants are a feasible option for patients with moderate to severe hearing loss who are unable to achieve adequate benefit from or cannot tolerate hearing aids for various reasons. Here we present a case of middle ear implant surgery using Vibrant Soundbridge with incus vibroplasty technique, and describe the hearing changes during postoperative follow-up.
    01/2015; 19(1). DOI:10.7874/jao.2015.19.1.54
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    ABSTRACT: According to previous studies, acute and chronic cholesterol depletion in the cell membranes of human airway epithelial cells suppresses MUC5AC gene expression. Also statins and lipid-lowering drugs are known to have anti-inflammatory effects. From these results, we hypothesize that the use of statin decreases the prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the correlation between hyperlipidemia and the use of statin and prevalence of CRS in Korea.
    01/2015; 58(1):25. DOI:10.3342/kjorl-hns.2015.58.1.25
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    ABSTRACT: Operating room fires are a rare but preventable danger in modern operating rooms. But sometimes accidental fires in operating room can be life threatening. Surgical fires require an ignition source, oxidizer, and fuel. Recently, laser as an ignition source in the presence of anesthetic gases has been associated with operating room fires in otorhinolaryngologic field. We describe a 30-year-old patient diagnosed with recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis treated by CO2 laser-assisted laryngomicrosurgery. In this case, we experienced endotracheal tube flaring during CO2 vaporization and then incidental endotracheal tube firing due to CO2 laser under high O2 circumference. Shortly after removal of firing endotracheal tube, the anesthesiologist considered careful re-intubation. To minimize the risk of operating room fires, surgeons must familiarize with the common possibilities where fire is known to occur. Furthermore, the prevention of operating room firing should be strongly considered during all operations using lasers.
    01/2015; 58(3):209. DOI:10.3342/kjorl-hns.2015.58.3.209
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    ABSTRACT: nodal dissemination of MALT lymphoma can mimic nodal lymphoma, especially when the primary site is grossly indistinct. Plasmacytic differentiation may often be present with MALT lymphoma; an associated extreme form such as Mott cell formation, which strongly suggests PCN or LPL, may also be observed in MALT lymphoma. An exhaustive evaluation, including PET-CT, protein electrophoresis, and immunohistochemical staining, should be conducted for an accurate diagnosis
    12/2014; 49(4):275-278. DOI:10.5045/br.2014.49.4.275
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to check the status of the contact investigation in congregate settings to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in the Republic of Korea. The "Integrated System for Disease and Public Health Management" is used for care and follow-up for patients and contacts of TB. We downloaded data for contact investigations conducted from January to December 2013. A total of 1,200 contact investigations in congregate settings were carried out by 25 field investigators in 2013. We performed the status of contact investigation, TB, and LTBI rate by age, accept rate of LTBI treatment, and complete rate of LTBI treatment during 2013. A total of 1,547 index TB patients, 149,166 contacts, and 259 additional TB patients were found through the investigation. Kindergartens showed the highest LTBI rate, 19.8%, among educational facilities. The second highest was in elementary schools and the subtotal LTBI rate of educational facilities was 7.8%. Social welfare/correctional facilities and workplaces showed relatively high LTBI rates of 23.8% and 23.6%, respectively. By age, individuals >35 years showed the highest LTBI rate, followed by those aged 0-4 years, 30-34 years, and 5-9 years, with rates of 18.1%, 16.4%, and 15.4% respectively. When comparing the tuberculin skin test (TST) positive conversion ratio by facility, middle school and high school were relatively high compared to the others. The accept rate of LTBI treatment in the workplace was lowest at 63% and the complete rate in elementary schools was lowest at 76.5%. TB contact investigation is considered as a meaningful strategy for preventing TB outbreaks in congregate settings and decreasing the prevalence of TB in young people. Results of this study could be used to establish the LTBI management policy.
    12/2014; 5(Suppl):S30-S36. DOI:10.1016/j.phrp.2014.10.010
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    ABSTRACT: Background We estimated the nationwide burden of nosocomial S. aureus bloodstream infection (SA-BSI), a major cause of nosocomial infection, in South Korea. Methods To evaluate the nationwide incidence of nosocomial SA-BSI, cases of SA-BSI were prospectively collected from 22 hospitals with over 500 beds over 4 months. Data on patient-days were obtained from a national health insurance database containing the claims data for all healthcare facilities in South Korea. The additional cost of SA-BSI was estimated through a matched case–control study. The economic burden was calculated from the sum of the medical costs, the costs of caregiving and loss of productivity. Results Three hundred and thirty nine cases of nosocomial SA-BSI were included in the study: 254 cases of methicillin-resistant SA-BSI (MRSA-BSI) and 85 cases of methicillin-susceptible SA-BSI (MSSA-BSI). Death related to BSI occurred in 81 cases (31.9%) of MRSA-BSI and 12 cases (14.1%) of MSSA-BSI. The estimated incidence of nosocomial MRSA-BSI was 0.12/1,000 patient-days and that of nosocomial MSSA-BSI, 0.04/1,000 patient-days. The estimated annual cases of nosocomial BSI were 2,946 for MRSA and 986 for MSSA in South Korea. The additional economic burden per case of nosocomial SA-BSI was US $20,494 for MRSA-BSI and $6,914 for MSSA-BSI. Total additional annual cost of nosocomial SA-BSI was $67,192,559. Conclusion In view of the burden of nosocomial SA-BSI, a national strategy for reducing nosocomial SA-BSI is urgently needed in South Korea.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 11/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0590-4 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This multicenter, retrospective cohort study compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes of community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis (CA-KPM) with those of community-acquired Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis (CA-SPM). Eighty-three adult patients, 27 with CA-KPM and 56 with CA-SPM, were included. Diabetes mellitus (48.1% versus 21.4%; P=0.01) and liver cirrhosis (22.2% versus 5.4%; P=0.05) were more commonly associated with CA-KPM. Comatose mental status (40.7% versus 12.5%; P=0.01), septic shock (44.4% versus 8.9%; P<0.001), and concomitant extrameningeal infections (40.7% versus 7.1%; P=0.001) were also more common in the CA-KPM group. The 28-day mortality (44.4% versus 10.7%; P<0.001) and inhospital mortality (51.9% versus 14.3%; P<0.001) were higher in the CA-KPM group. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus and liver cirrhosis are more common in the CA-KPM patients who were also more likely to present with severe manifestations and poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    IDWeek 2014 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: “Proteinticle” is nano-scale protein particle that is self-assembled inside cells with constant 3D structure and surface topology. The binding of IgG to B domain of Staphylococcal protein A (SPAB) molecules that are genetically inserted into the surface of proteinticle enables the variable domains of bound IgG to be well oriented to effectively capture antigens, accordingly forming a highly sensitive 3D IgG probe. The five different proteinticles that originate from human, bacteria, and virus and totally differ in size, shape, and surface structure were used for the surface display of SPAB. The dissociation constant (KD) in the binding of IgG to SPAB on the proteinticle surface was estimated based on Langmuir adsorption isotherm model: KD was 1-3 orders-of-magnitude lower compared to the previously reported KD in the binding of IgG to Staphylococcal protein A. The surface density and distribution of SPAB and especially the existence of hot (or highly congested) spots of SPAB, which depend on surface structure and number of subunits as well as size and shape of proteinticle, is of crucial importance for the effective binding of IgG to SPAB on proteinticles. Although the five different proteinticles were demonstrated as proof-of-concept here, SPAB-mediated immobilization of IgG on the other proteinticles would be very useful for the fabrication of sensitive 3D immunoassay platforms.
    Nanoscale 10/2014; DOI:10.1039/C4NR03635B · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Non-destructive continuous monitoring of regenerative tissue is required throughout the entire period of in vitro tissue culture. Microscopic electrical impedance tomography (micro-EIT) has the potential to monitor the physiological state of tissues by forming three-dimensional images of impedance changes in a non-destructive and label-free manner. We developed a new micro-EIT system and report on simulation and experimental results of its macroscopic model. Methods We propose a new micro-EIT system design using a cuboid sample container with separate current-driving and voltage sensing electrodes. The top is open for sample manipulations. We used nine gold-coated solid electrodes on each of two opposing sides of the container to produce multiple linearly independent internal current density distributions. The 360 voltage sensing electrodes were placed on the other sides and base to measure induced voltages. Instead of using an inverse solver with the least squares method, we used a projected image reconstruction algorithm based on a logarithm formulation to produce projected images. We intended to improve the quality and spatial resolution of the images by increasing the number of voltage measurements subject to a few injected current patterns. We evaluated the performance of the micro-EIT system with a macroscopic physical phantom. Results The signal-to-noise ratio of the developed micro-EIT system was 66 dB. Crosstalk was in the range of -110.8 to -90.04 dB. Three-dimensional images with consistent quality were reconstructed from physical phantom data over the entire domain. From numerical and experimental results, we estimate that at least 20 × 40 electrodes with 120 μm spacing are required to monitor the complex shape of ingrowth neotissue inside a scaffold with 300 μm pore. Conclusion The experimental results showed that the new micro-EIT system with a reduced set of injection current patterns and a large number of voltage sensing electrodes can be potentially used for tissue culture monitoring. Numerical simulations demonstrated that the spatial resolution could be improved to the scale required for tissue culture monitoring. Future challenges include manufacturing a bioreactor-compatible container with a dense array of electrodes and a larger number of measurement channels that are sensitive to the reduced voltage gradients expected at a smaller scale.
    BioMedical Engineering OnLine 10/2014; 13(1):142. DOI:10.1186/1475-925X-13-142 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PGCS-NPs (40 nm) with excellent photo-thermal activity are developed, on the surface of which affibody peptides with specific affinity for EGFR and many small gold dots (1-3 nm) are densely presented. The IV-injected PGCS-NPs into EGFR-expressing tumor-bearing mice successfully perform targeted and photothermal therapy of cancer. It seems that the small gold dots released from disassembled PGCS-NPs are easily removed and never cause in vivo toxicity problems.
    Advanced Materials 10/2014; 26(37). DOI:10.1002/adma.201401499 · 15.41 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
635.19 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Chonnam National University
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2012–2015
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      • Department of Pathology
      Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2009–2015
    • Korea University
      • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Eulji University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • National Cancer Center Korea
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Chinju, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2002–2015
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • Department of Hospital Pathology
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Soonchunhyang University
      Onyang, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Food Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Internal medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2014
    • Chonbuk National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Ulsan
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Asan Medical Center
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Asan Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2014
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2007–2014
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Otorhinolaryngology
      • • College of Life Science and Biotechnology
      • • Department of Biology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2014
    • Chungbuk National University
      • Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural Technology
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 1999–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Agricultural Biotechnology
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Division of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering
      • • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013
    • Hanyang University
      • Division of Business Administration
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • CHA University
      • School of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences
      College Station, Texas, United States
    • New Jersey Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Newark, New Jersey, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • Department of Applied Chemistry
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2013
    • Inha University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Kyungpook National University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Carnegie Mellon University
      • Entertainment Technology Center
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • Kyung Hee University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2012
    • Yale University
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sunchon National University
      • Department of Biology
      Junten, Jeollanam-do, South Korea
  • 2006–2009
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2005
    • Kyungsung University
      • Department of Food Science and Biotechnology
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Seegene Institute of Life Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2001–2002
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea