[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lack of bile flow from the liver into the intestine can have devastating complications including hepatic failure, sepsis and even death. This pathologic condition known as cholestasis can result from etiologies as diverse as total parenteral nutrition (TPN), hepatitis and pancreatic cancer. The intestinal injury associated with cholestasis has been shown to result in decreased intestinal resistance, increased bacterial translocation and increased endotoxemia. Anecdotal clinical evidence suggests a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury. Recent animal research on two different strains of inbred mice demonstrating different rates of bacterial translocation with different mortality rates supports this premise. In this study, a microarray analysis of intestinal tissue following common bile duct ligation (CBDL) performed under general anesthesia on these same two strains of inbred mice was done with the goal of identifying the potential molecular mechanistic pathways responsible. Over 500 genes were increased more than 2.0 fold following CBDL. The most promising candidate genes included MUPs, Serpina1a and LCN-2. RT-PCR validated the microarray results for these candidate genes. In an in vitro experiment using differentiated intestinal epithelial cells, inhibition of MUP-1 by siRNA resulted in increased intestinal epithelial cell permeability. Diverse novel mechanisms involving the growth hormone pathway, the acute phase response and the innate immune response are thus potential avenues for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury. Changes in gene expression were at times found to be not only due to the CBDL but also due to the murine strain. Should further studies in cholestatic patients demonstrate inter-individual variability similar to what we have shown in mice, then a "personalized medicine" approach to cholestatic patients may become possible.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Failure of the intestinal barrier is a characteristic feature of cholestasis. We have previously observed higher mortality in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We hypothesized the alteration in gut barrier function following cholestasis would vary by genetic background. Following one week of CBDL, jejunal TEER was significantly reduced in each ligated mouse compared with their sham counterparts; moreover, jejunal TEER was significantly lower in both sham and ligated C57BL/6J compared with sham and ligated A/J mice, respectively. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes was significantly increased in C57BL/6J mice vs. A/J mice. Four of 15 C57BL/6J mice were bacteremic; whereas, none of the 17 A/J mice were. Jejunal IFN-γ mRNA expression was significantly elevated in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in occludin protein expression in C57BL/6J compared with A/J mice following both sham operation and CBDL. Only C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a marked decrease in ZO-1 protein expression following CBDL compared with shams. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene in fecal samples showed a dysbiosis only in C57BL/6J mice following CBDL when compared with shams. This study provides evidence of strain differences in gut microbiota, tight junction protein expression, intestinal resistance and bacterial translocation which supports the notion of a genetic predisposition to exaggerated injury following cholestasis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) are secreted by pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria through the autotransporter pathway. We previously classified SPATE proteins into two classes: cytotoxic (class 1) and noncytotoxic (class 2). Here, we show that Pic, a class 2 SPATE protein produced by Shigella flexneri 2a, uropathogenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains, targets a broad range of human leukocyte adhesion proteins. Substrate specificity was restricted to glycoproteins rich in O-linked glycans, including CD43, CD44, CD45, CD93, CD162 (PSGL-1; P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1), and the surface-attached chemokine fractalkine, all implicated in leukocyte trafficking, migration, and inflammation. N-terminal sequencing of proteolytic products revealed Pic (protease involved in colonization) cleavage sites to occur before Thr or Ser residues. The purified carbohydrate sLewis-X implied in inflammation and malignancy inhibited cleavage of PSGL-1 by Pic. Exposure of human leukocytes to purified Pic resulted in polymorphonuclear cell activation, but impaired chemotaxis and transmigration; Pic-treated T cells underwent programmed cell death. We also show that the Pic-related protease Tsh/Hbp, implicated in extraintestinal infections, exhibited a spectrum of substrates similar to those cleaved by Pic. In the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model, a Shigella pic mutant induced greater inflammation than its parent strain. We suggest that the class-2 SPATEs represent unique immune-modulating bacterial virulence factors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2011; 108(31):12881-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor