ABSTRACT: To report the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) as the autoantigen of antibodies from 2 patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and limbic encephalopathy (Ophelia syndrome).
Immunohistochemistry with brain tissue and cultures of rat hippocampal neurons were used to demonstrate antibodies. Immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and mGluR5-null mice served to identify the antigen. HEK293 cells transfected with mGluR5 or mGluR1 were used to determine immunologic crossreactivity.
Both patients developed symptoms consistent with limbic encephalopathy; one had MRI findings typical of this disorder and the other had more extensive radiologic involvement, including parietal and occipital cortex. Patients' sera had antibodies that predominantly reacted with the neuropil of hippocampus and cell surface of live hippocampal neurons. Immunoprecipitation from cultured neurons and mass spectrometry demonstrated that the antigen was mGluR5, a receptor involved in processes of learning and memory. The reactivity of patients' sera was abrogated in brain of mGluR5-null mice, further confirming the antibody specificity. Studies with a large number of controls including 2 patients with cerebellar ataxia and mGluR1 antibodies showed that mGluR5 was only identified by sera of the 2 patients with the Ophelia syndrome, and that despite the homology of this receptor with mGluR1 each autoantigen was specific for a distinct syndrome.
Antibodies to mGluR5 should be considered in patients with symptoms of limbic encephalitis and HL (Ophelia syndrome). Recognition of this disorder is important because it can affect young individuals and is reversible.
Neurology 11/2011; 77(18):1698-701. · 8.31 Impact Factor
Neurology 08/2011; 77(7):691-3. · 8.31 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Most patients with anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis have intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, which cause a decrease of cell surface and synaptic NMDAR. Antibodies are immunoglobulin G (IgG)1 and IgG3 subtypes and can potentially activate complement. We examined whether complement immunoreactivity and antibody-secreting cells (plasma cells/plasmablasts) are present in the brain of these patients.
Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were used in an immunocytochemical assay to test whether patients' antibodies can fix complement. Using the same reagents (antibodies to C9neo, C(5b-9), C3), complement immunoreactivity was determined in the brain of 5 patients, the teratoma of 21 patients, and appropriate control tissues. A set of markers for B (CD20), T (CD3, CD4, CD8) and antibody-secreting cells (plasma cells/plasmablasts, CD138) were used to examine the brain inflammatory infiltrates.
Patients' antibodies were able to bind complement in vitro, but deposits of complement were not detected in patients' brain. Parallel experiments with teratomas showed that in contrast to the brain, the neural tissue of the tumors contained complement. Analysis of the inflammatory infiltrates in brain samples from autopsy or biopsy performed 3-4 weeks after symptom presentation demonstrated numerous antibody-secreting cells (CD138+) in perivascular, interstitial, and Virchow-Robin spaces, and B and T cells predominantly located in perivascular regions.
Complement-mediated mechanisms do not appear to play a substantial pathogenic role in anti-NMDAR encephalitis. In contrast, there are copious infiltrates of antibody-secreting cells (plasma cells/plasmablasts) in the CNS of these patients. The demonstration of these cells provides an explanation for the intrathecal synthesis of antibodies and has implications for treatment.
Neurology 08/2011; 77(6):589-93. · 8.31 Impact Factor