ABSTRACT: Caveolae, a class of cholesterol-rich lipid rafts, are smooth invaginations of the plasma membrane whose formation in nonmuscle cells requires caveolin-1 (Cav1). The recent demonstration that Cav1-associated cavin proteins, in particular PTRF/cavin-1, are also required for caveolae formation supports a functional role for Cav1 independently of caveolae. In tumor cells deficient for Golgi β-1,6N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (Mgat5), reduced Cav1 expression is associated not with caveolae but with oligomerized Cav1 domains, or scaffolds, that functionally regulate receptor signaling and raft-dependent endocytosis. Using subdiffraction-limit microscopy, we show that Cav1 scaffolds are homogenous subdiffraction-limit sized structures whose size distribution differs from that of Cav1 in caveolae expressing cells. These cell lines displaying differing Cav1/caveolae phenotypes are effective tools for probing the structure and composition of caveolae. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture, we are able to quantitatively distinguish the composition of caveolae from the background of detergent-resistant membrane proteins and show that the presence of caveolae enriches the protein composition of detergent-resistant membrane, including the recruitment of multiple heterotrimeric G-protein subunits. These data were further supported by analysis of immuno-isolated Cav1 domains and of methyl-β-cyclodextrin-disrupted detergent-resistant membrane. Our data show that loss of caveolae results in a dramatic change to the membrane raft proteome and that this change is independent of Cav1 expression. The proteomics data, in combination with subdiffraction-limit microscopy, indicates that noncaveolar Cav1 domains, or scaffolds are structurally and functionally distinct from caveolae and differentially impact on the molecular composition of lipid rafts.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 07/2011; 10(10):M110.007146. · 7.40 Impact Factor