[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The Boston Keratoprosthesis has allowed for visual restoration in patients with corneal blindness; however, vitreoretinal complications remain a significant cause of ocular morbidity. Retroprosthetic membranes, infectious endophthalmitis, sterile vitritis, vitreous hemorrhage, vitreous opacities, retinal detachment, cystoid macular edema, choroidal detachments, retinal vascular occlusion, and epiretinal membrane have all been described, may require the intervention of a vitreoretinal specialist, and are reviewed herein. A strong familiarity with associated posterior segment complications is important to maximizing patient outcomes.
Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014; 29(5-6):338-48. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other pathologic ocular conditions that overexpress the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been revolutionized in the last decade by the introduction of intravitreal agents that target the VEGF pathway. Since treatment trials are designed primarily to assess the prevention of vision loss caused by ocular conditions, they are inadequate for detecting rare, but potentially serious, systemic side effects. The aim of this article is to present what the ophthalmologist needs to know about systemic complications from anti-VEGF therapy and review the likelihood that these side effects occur in the context of small, but often-repeated, intravitreal doses of these potent biological medications. Preferred practice patterns need to be developed that weigh the ability of these medications to mitigate potentially blinding conditions, while at the same time minimizing the risk of adverse outcomes in specific patient populations that possess multiple and often interrelated medical comorbidities.
Seminars in Ophthalmology 11/2014; 29(5-6):263-75. · 1.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traumatic chorioretinal rupture, also known as sclopetaria, is a full-thickness break of the choroid and retina caused by a high-velocity projectile striking or passing adjacent to, but not penetrating, the globe. Previous reports have emphasized that retinal detachment seldom occurs, and observation alone has been the recommended management strategy. However, the authors present herein a series of consecutive patients with retinal detachment associated with sclopetaria and provide a literature review of the topic. They recommend that patients with traumatic chorioretinal rupture be monitored closely for the development of retinal detachment during the first few weeks after the injury. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:xxx-xxx.].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report describes two cases of severe, bilateral ischemic retinal vasculitis following cataract surgeries at different surgical centers. In both cases, the patient underwent bilateral cataract surgeries, performed 1 week apart for each eye. In the perioperative period following the second of the two surgeries, both patients developed severe, bilateral intraocular inflammation and profound vision loss. The underlying cause of this adverse response remains unknown. The authors suggest that the severe inflammatory reaction could be related to an intraoperative intracameral vancomycin injection. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2014;45:338-342.].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To determine whether Massachusetts Health Reform improved health outcomes in uninsured patients with hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension.Data SourcePartners HealthCare Research Patient Data Registry (RPDR).Study DesignWe examined 1,463 patients with hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension who were uninsured in the 3 years before the 2006 Massachusetts Health Reform implementation. We assessed mean quarterly total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, and systolic blood pressure in the respective cohorts for five follow-up years compared with 3,448 propensity score-matched controls who remained insured for the full 8-year study period. We used person-level interrupted time series analysis to estimate changes in outcomes adjusting for sex, age, race, estimated household income, and comorbidity. We also analyzed the subgroups of uninsured patients with poorly controlled disease at baseline, no evidence of established primary care in the baseline period, and those who received insurance in the first follow-up year.Principal FindingsIn 5 years after Massachusetts Health Reform, patients who were uninsured at baseline did not experience detectable trend changes in total cholesterol (−0.39 mg/dl per quarter, 95 percent confidence interval [−1.11 to 0.33]), glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.02 percent per quarter [−0.06 to 0.03]), or systolic blood pressure (−0.06 mmHg per quarter [−0.29 to 0.18]). Analyses of uninsured patients with poorly controlled disease, no evidence of established primary care in the baseline period, and those who received insurance in the first follow-up year yielded similar findings.Conclusions
Massachusetts Health Reform was not associated with improvements in hyperlipidemia, diabetes, or hypertension control after 5 years. Interventions beyond insurance coverage might be needed to improve the health of chronically ill uninsured persons.
Health Services Research 07/2014; · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report the ocular injuries sustained by survivors of the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing and the April 17, 2013, fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) is a clinically heterogeneous maculopathy that may mimic other conditions and be difficult to diagnose. It is characterized by late onset, slow progression and high variability in morphologic and functional alterations. Diagnostic evaluation should include careful ophthalmoscopy and imaging studies. The typical ophthalmoscopic findings are bilateral, asymmetric, foveal or perifoveal, yellow, solitary, round to oval elevated subretinal lesions, often with central pigmentation. The lesions characteristically demonstrate increased autofluorescence and hypofluorescent lesions surrounded by irregular annular hyperfluorescence on fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography studies demonstrate homogenous or heterogeneous hyperreflective material between the retinal pigment epithelium and the neurosensory retina. The visual prognosis is generally favorable, but visual loss can occur from chorioretinal atrophy and choroidal neovascularization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disorder that occurs in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and in eyes that have recently undergone retinal detachment surgery. There are presently no treatment strategies to reduce the risk of developing PVR in eyes with retinal detachment, and surgical intervention is the only option for eyes with retinal detachment and established PVR. Given the poor visual outcome associated with the surgical treatment of PVR, considerable work has been done to identify pharmacologic agents that could antagonize the PVR process. Intensive efforts to identify molecular determinants of PVR implicate vitreal growth factors. A surprise that emerged in the course of testing the 'growth factor hypothesis' of PVR was the existence of a functional relationship amongst growth factors that engage platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor α (PDGFRα), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is key to pathogenesis of experimental PVR. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGF), which is best known for its ability to activate VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) and induce permeability and/or angiogenesis, enables activation of PDGFRα by a wide spectrum of vitreal growth factors outside of the PDGF family (non-PDGFs) in a way that triggers signaling events that potently enhance the viability of cells displaced into vitreous. Targeting these growth factors or signaling events effectively neutralizes the bioactivity of PVR vitreous and prevents PVR in a number of preclinical models. In this review, we discuss recent conceptual advances in understanding the role of growth factors in PVR, and consider the tangible treatment strategies for clinical application.
Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 01/2014; · 9.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silicone oil continues to be an important aid in retinal detachment surgery. We report a case in which disparate responses to silicone oil were noted in the conjunctiva and intraocularly. Intraocularly, the oil permeated a fibrous membrane that formed behind a keratoprosthesis, the first example of this phenomenon. We detail the histological response to the oil at this site as well as a distinctly different reaction present to oil in the conjunctiva of the same eye. The divergence of histological responses provides a demonstration of the eye's apparent retained capacity to protect against intraocular inflammation, despite multiple previous surgeries.
Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection. 01/2014; 4:15.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PurposeTo identify factors associated with visual outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with ranibizumab (RBZ) in the Ranibizumab for Edema of the mAcula in Diabetes-Protocol 2 (READ-2) Study.Patients and methodsOptical coherence tomography scans, fundus photographs, and fluorescein angiograms (FAs) were graded and along with baseline characteristics were correlated with month (M) 24 visual outcome of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤20/100 (poor outcome) vs >20/100 (better outcome).ResultsOf 101 patients with a M20 visit or beyond, 27 (27%) had BCVA ≤20/100. Comparison of patients with or without poor outcome showed mean baseline BCVA of 16.8 letters (20/125) in the former compared with 30.4 letters (20/63; P<0.001). Mean change in BCVA between baseline and M24 was -2.6 letters in the poor outcome group compared with +9.8 letters (P<0.001). Foveal thickness (FTH) at M24 was 374.1 μm in the poor outcome group compared with 268.8 μm (P<0.01), a difference driven by 14 patients with mean FTH of 450.3 μm. Foveal atrophy occurred in 65% (11/17) in the poor outcome group compared with 17%(12/71, P=0.001). Persistent edema was noted in 52% (14/27) of patients with poor outcome. Laser scars near foveal center were significantly more common in patients with poor outcome who did not have edema vs those who did (78% (7/9) vs 23% (3/13) P=0.03).Conclusion
Poor baseline BCVA (≤20/125) in DME patients predicts poor visual outcome (≤20/100) after 2 years of treatment with RBZ and/or focal/grid laser, often due to foveal atrophy and/or persistent edema.Eye advance online publication, 22 November 2013; doi:10.1038/eye.2013.245.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinal artery occlusion from carotid dissection is rare and classically considered a post-traumatic phenomenon occurring in young patients and associated with additional symptoms of dissection such as neck pain, headache, or focal neurological deficits.
The authors report three cases of retinal artery occlusion due to carotid artery dissection and briefly review the literature.
Antecedent trauma or neck injury was reported in only 42% (five of 12) of previously reported cases and in none of the three cases presented here. All three patients in this series initially denied symptoms such as headache or neck pain; however, one patient's wife later recalled her husband experiencing minor neck soreness several days prior to visual loss. In 17% (two of 12) of previously reported cases, no additional symptoms of carotid dissection were reported.
These cases highlight the importance of considering carotid dissection in young patients with retinal artery occlusion, even in the absence of a report of recent trauma or associated symptoms such as pain. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:xxx-xxx.].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the development of retinal detachment (RD) after open globe trauma.
A total of 892 patients comprising 893 open globe injuries (OGIs), of whom 255 were ultimately diagnosed with RD, with the remaining eyes serving as controls.
Retrospective chart review of patients with OGIs presenting to the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary between 1999 and 2011. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate the time to detachment, and multivariable logistic regression was used to define the clinical factors associated with RD after OGI.
Demographic and clinical characteristics at the time of presentation after OGI, date of RD diagnosis, and last date of follow-up.
Primary repair of the open globe was typically undertaken within hours of presentation. A total of 255 eyes were ultimately diagnosed with RD after open globe trauma, yielding an incidence of 29% (95% confidence interval, 26-32). For eyes that developed RD, 27% (69/255) detached within 24 hours of primary open globe repair, 47% (119/255) detached within 1 week, and 72% (183/255) detached within 1 month. Multivariable regression analysis revealed the presence of vitreous hemorrhage (odds ratio [OR], 7.29; P < 0.001), higher zone of injury (OR, 2.51 per integer increase in zone number; OR, 1.00-6.30; P < 0.001), and poorer logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity at the time of presentation after OGI (OR, 2.41 per integer increase in logMAR visual acuity; OR, 1.00-81.30; P < 0.001) to be associated with RD. A screening tool was created: the Retinal Detachment after Open Globe Injury score.
Retinal detachment is common after open globe trauma, although often not appearing until days to weeks after the initial traumatic event. Several clinical variables at the time of initial presentation can predict the future risk of detachment.
The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To explore the visual and anatomic outcomes of patients with refractory or recurrent neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who were converted from bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab to aflibercept. DESIGN: Two-center, retrospective chart review. METHODS: Treatment history, visual acuity (VA), and central macular thickness (CMT) on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were collected. Patients were divided into "refractory" (persistent exudation despite monthly injections) or "recurrent" (exudation suppressed, but requiring frequent injections). RESULTS: One hundred and two eyes of 94 patients were included; 68 were refractory and 34 were recurrent. Eyes received a mean of 20.4 prior bevacizumab/ranibizumab injections and a mean of 3.8 aflibercept injections. Mean follow-up was 18 weeks. Mean VA was 20/50-1 before conversion, 20/50-2 after 1 aflibercept injection (P = .723), and 20/50+2 after the final injection (P = .253). Subgroup analysis of refractory and recurrent cases also showed stable VA. Of the refractory cases, mean CMT had improved after 1 injection (P < .001) and the final injection (P < .001). Intraretinal (P < .001) and subretinal (P < .001) fluid decreased after 1 injection, and the mean injection interval was extended from 5.2 to 6.2 weeks (P = .003). Of the recurrent cases, mean CMT improved after 1 injection (P < .001) and the final injection (P < .001). Intraretinal (P = .003) and subretinal (P = .046) fluid decreased after 1 injection, and the mean injection interval was extended from 7.2 to 9.5 weeks (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Converting patients with chronic neovascular AMD to aflibercept results in stabilized vision and improved anatomic outcomes, while allowing injection intervals to be extended.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 05/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a new mechanism of ocular trauma. A basketball was intentionally overinflated until it exploded, resulting in corneal edema, hyphema, iritis, vitreous hemorrhage, commotio retinae, and a macular hole. The macular hole did not close after observation and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid removal, but a repeat vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling resulted in hole closure. Basketball overinflation to the point of explosion is a potentially blinding practice of which the public and manufacturers should be made aware.[Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44:303-305.].