[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced cholangiocarcinoma continues to harbor a difficult prognosis and therapeutic options have been limited. During the course of a clinical trial of whole genomic sequencing seeking druggable targets, we examined six patients with advanced cholangiocarcinoma. Integrated genome-wide and whole transcriptome sequence analyses were performed on tumors from six patients with advanced, sporadic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (SIC) to identify potential therapeutically actionable events. Among the somatic events captured in our analysis, we uncovered two novel therapeutically relevant genomic contexts that when acted upon, resulted in preliminary evidence of anti-tumor activity. Genome-wide structural analysis of sequence data revealed recurrent translocation events involving the FGFR2 locus in three of six assessed patients. These observations and supporting evidence triggered the use of FGFR inhibitors in these patients. In one example, preliminary anti-tumor activity of pazopanib (in vitro FGFR2 IC50≈350 nM) was noted in a patient with an FGFR2-TACC3 fusion. After progression on pazopanib, the same patient also had stable disease on ponatinib, a pan-FGFR inhibitor (in vitro, FGFR2 IC50≈8 nM). In an independent non-FGFR2 translocation patient, exome and transcriptome analysis revealed an allele specific somatic nonsense mutation (E384X) in ERRFI1, a direct negative regulator of EGFR activation. Rapid and robust disease regression was noted in this ERRFI1 inactivated tumor when treated with erlotinib, an EGFR kinase inhibitor. FGFR2 fusions and ERRFI mutations may represent novel targets in sporadic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and trials should be characterized in larger cohorts of patients with these aberrations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integration of carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) into the host genome is a significant tumorigenic factor in specific cancers including cervical carcinoma. Although major strides have been made with respect to HPV diagnosis and prevention, identification and development of efficacious treatments for cervical cancer patients remains a goal and thus requires additional detailed characterization of both somatic events and HPV integration. Given this need, the goal of this study was to use the next generation sequencing to simultaneously evaluate somatic alterations and expression changes in a patient's cervical squamous carcinoma lesion metastatic to the lung and to detect and analyze HPV infection in the same sample.
We performed tumor and normal exome, tumor and normal shallow whole-genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing of the patient's lung metastasis.
We generated over 1.2 billion mapped reads and identified 130 somatic point mutations and indels, 21 genic translocations, 16 coding regions demonstrating copy number changes, and over 36 genes demonstrating altered expression in the tumor (corrected P < 0.05). Sequencing also revealed the HPV type 18 (HPV-18) integration in the metastasis. Using both DNA and RNA reads, we pinpointed 3 major events indicating HPV-18 integration into an intronic region of chromosome 6p25.1 in the patient's tumor and validated these events with Sanger sequencing. This integration site has not been reported for HPV-18.
We demonstrate that DNA and RNA sequencing can be used to concurrently characterize somatic alterations and expression changes in a biopsy and delineate HPV integration at base resolution in cervical cancer. Further sequencing will allow us to better understand the molecular basis of cervical cancer pathogenesis.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 01/2014; · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma, but little is known about the genomic basis of this disease. Given the low cell content of this tumor type, we utilized flow cytometry to isolate the diploid normal and aneuploid tumor populations from a well-differentiated liposarcoma prior to array comparative genomic hybridization and whole genome sequencing. This work revealed massive highly focal amplifications throughout the aneuploid tumor genome including MDM2, a gene that has previously been found to be amplified in well-differentiated liposarcoma. Structural analysis revealed massive rearrangement of chromosome 12 and 11 gene fusions, some of which may be part of double minute chromosomes commonly present in well-differentiated liposarcoma. We identified a hotspot of genomic instability localized to a region of chromosome 12 that includes a highly conserved, putative L1 retrotransposon element, LOC100507498 which resides within a gene cluster (NAV3, SYT1, PAWR) where 6 of the 11 fusion events occurred. Interestingly, a potential gene fusion was also identified in amplified DDR2, which is a potential therapeutic target of kinase inhibitors such as dastinib, that are not routinely used in the treatment of patients with liposarcoma. Furthermore, 7 somatic, damaging single nucleotide variants have also been identified, including D125N in the PTPRQ protein. In conclusion, this work is the first to report the entire genome of a well-differentiated liposarcoma with novel chromosomal rearrangements associated with amplification of therapeutically targetable genes such as MDM2 and DDR2.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87113. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As next-generation sequencing continues to have an expanding presence in the clinic, the identification of the most cost-effective and robust strategy for identifying copy number changes and translocations in tumor genomes is needed. We hypothesized that performing shallow whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 900-1000-bp inserts (long insert WGS, LI-WGS) improves our ability to detect these events, compared with shallow WGS of 300-400-bp inserts. A priori analyses show that LI-WGS requires less sequencing compared with short insert WGS to achieve a target physical coverage, and that LI-WGS requires less sequence coverage to detect a heterozygous event with a power of 0.99. We thus developed an LI-WGS library preparation protocol based off of Illumina's WGS library preparation protocol and illustrate the feasibility of performing LI-WGS. We additionally applied LI-WGS to three separate tumor/normal DNA pairs collected from patients diagnosed with different cancers to demonstrate our application of LI-WGS on actual patient samples for identification of somatic copy number alterations and translocations. With the evolution of sequencing technologies and bioinformatics analyses, we show that modifications to current approaches may improve our ability to interrogate cancer genomes.
Nucleic Acids Research 09/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17–29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD and major depressive disorder (0.32 ± 0.07 s.e.), low between schizophrenia and ASD (0.16 ± 0.06 s.e.) and non-significant for other pairs of disorders as well as between psychiatric disorders and the negative control of Crohn’s disease. This empirical evidence of shared genetic etiology for psychiatric disorders can inform nosology and encourages the investigation of common pathophysiologies for related disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple research groups have observed neuropathological phenotypes and molecular symptoms in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural cell cultures (i.e., patient-specific neurons and glia). However, the global differences/similarities that may exist between in vitro neural cells and their tissue-derived counterparts remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared temporal series of iPSC-derived in vitro neural cell cultures to endogenous brain tissue from the same autopsy donor. Specifically, we utilized RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to evaluate the transcriptional progression of in vitro-differentiated neural cells (over a timecourse of 0, 35, 70, 105, and 140 days), and compared this to donor-identical temporal lobe tissue. We observed in vitro progression towards the reference brain tissue, and the following three results support this conclusion: (1) there was a significant increasing monotonic correlation between the days of our timecourse and the number of actively transcribed protein-coding genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) (p<0.05), consistent with the transcriptional complexity of the brain; (2) there was an increase in CpG methylation after neural differentiation that resembled the epigenomic signature of the endogenous tissue; and (3) there was a significant decreasing monotonic correlation between the days of our timecourse and the percent of in vitro to brain tissue differences (p<0.05) for tissue-specific protein-coding genes and all putative lincRNAs. Taken together, these results are consistent with in vitro neural development and physiological progression occurring predominantly by transcriptional activation of downregulated genes rather than deactivation of upregulated genes.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The field of cancer genomics has rapidly adopted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in order to study and characterize malignant tumors with unprecedented resolution. In particular for cancer, one is often trying to identify somatic mutations -- changes specific to a tumor and not within an individual's germline. However, false positive and false negative detections often result from lack of sufficient variant evidence, contamination of the biopsy by stromal tissue, sequencing errors, and the erroneous classification of germline variation as tumor-specific. RESULTS: We have developed a generalized Bayesian analysis framework for matched tumor/normal samples with the purpose of identifying tumor-specific alterations such as single nucleotide mutations, small insertions/deletions, and structural variation. We describe our methodology, and discuss its application to other types of paired-tissue analysis such as the detection of loss of heterozygosity as well as allelic imbalance. We also demonstrate the high level of sensitivity and specificity in discovering simulated somatic mutations, for various combinations of a) genomic coverage and b) emulated heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: We present a Java-based implementation of our methods named Seurat, which is made available for free academic use. We have demonstrated and reported on the discovery of different types of somatic change by applying Seurat to an experimentally-derived cancer dataset using our methods; and have discussed considerations and practices regarding the accurate detection of somatic events in cancer genomes. Seurat is available at https://sites.google.com/site/seuratsomatic.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Converging lines of evidence point to the existence of immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which could directly affect several key neurodevelopmental processes. Previous studies have shown higher cytokine levels in patients with autism compared with matched controls or subjects with other developmental disorders. In the current study, we used plasma-cytokine profiling for 25 discordant sibling pairs to evaluate whether these alterations occur within families with ASD. METHODS: Plasma-cytokine profiling was conducted using an array-based multiplex sandwich ELISA for simultaneous quantitative measurement of 40 unique targets. We also analyzed the correlations between cytokine levels and clinically relevant quantitative traits (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale in Autism (VABS) composite score, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) total T score, head circumference, and full intelligence quotient (IQ)). In addition, because of the high phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD, we defined four subgroups of subjects (those who were non-verbal, those with gastrointestinal issues, those with regressive autism, and those with a history of allergies), which encompass common and/or recurrent endophenotypes in ASD, and tested the cytokine levels in each group. RESULTS: None of the measured parameters showed significant differences between children with ASD and their related typically developing siblings. However, specific target levels did correlate with quantitative clinical traits, and these were significantly different when the ASD subgroups were analyzed. It is notable that these differences seem to be attributable to a predisposing immunogenetic background, as no other significant differences were noticed between discordant sibling pairs. Interleukin-1beta appears to be the cytokine most involved in quantitative traits and clinical subgroups of ASD. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found a lack of significant differences in plasma-cytokine levels between children with ASD and in their related non-autistic siblings. Thus, our results support the evidence that the immune profiles of children with autism do not differ from their typically developing siblings. However, the significant association of cytokine levels with the quantitative traits and the clinical subgroups analyzed suggests that altered immune responses may affect core feature of ASD.
Journal of Neuroinflammation 03/2013; 10(1):38. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sustained activation of the stress-regulated transcription factor NRF2 (NFE2L2) is a prominent feature of many types of cancer, implying that mutations driving NRF2 may be important to tumor progression. In hereditary type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2, also known as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer, HLRCC), NRF2 activation is a direct consequence of the accumulation of intracellular fumarate, a result of fumarate hydratase (FH) inactivation, but it is not clear how NRF2 may be activated in sporadic forms of PRCC2. Here we show that somatic mutations in NRF2, CUL3, and SIRT1 are responsible for driving the NRF2 activation phenotype in sporadic PRCC2. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the expression pattern of mutant alleles of NRF2, CUL3, and SIRT1 and also confirmed NRF2 activation in clinical specimens. Our results demonstrate a convergence in somatic mutations in sporadic PRCC2 with FH mutation in hereditary PRCC2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New anticancer agents that target a single cell surface receptor, up-regulated or amplified gene product, or mutated gene, have met with some success in treating advanced cancers. However, patients' tumors still eventually progress on these therapies. If it were possible to identify a larger number of targetable vulnerabilities in an individual's tumor, multiple targets could be exploited with the use of specific therapeutic agents, thus possibly giving the patient viable therapeutic alternatives.
In this exploratory study, we used next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) including whole genome sequencing (WGS), and where feasible, whole transcriptome sequencing (WTS) to identify genomic events and associated expression changes in advanced cancer patients.
WGS on paired tumor and normal samples from nine advanced cancer patients and WTS on six of these patients' tumors was completed. One patient's treatment was based on targets and pathways identified by NGS and the patient had a short-lived PET/CT response with a significant reduction in his tumor-related pain. To design treatment plans based on information garnered from NGS, several challenges were encountered: NGS reporting delays, communication of results to out-of-state participants and their treating oncologists, and chain of custody handling for fresh biopsy samples for Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) target validation.
While the initial effort was a slower process than anticipated due to a variety of issues, we demonstrate the feasibility of using NGS in advanced cancer patients so that treatments for patients with progressing tumors may be improved.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(10):e76438. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical management of cancer patients could be improved through the development of noninvasive approaches for the detection of incipient, residual, and recurrent tumors. We describe an approach to directly identify tumor-derived chromosomal alterations through analysis of circulating cell-free DNA from cancer patients. Whole-genome analyses of DNA from the plasma of 10 colorectal and breast cancer patients and 10 healthy individuals with massively parallel sequencing identified, in all patients, structural alterations that were not present in plasma DNA from healthy subjects. Detected alterations comprised chromosomal copy number changes and rearrangements, including amplification of cancer driver genes such as ERBB2 and CDK6. The level of circulating tumor DNA in the cancer patients ranged from 1.4 to 47.9%. The sensitivity and specificity of this approach are dependent on the amount of sequence data obtained and are derived from the fact that most cancers harbor multiple chromosomal alterations, each of which is unlikely to be present in normal cells. Given that chromosomal abnormalities are present in nearly all human cancers, this approach represents a useful method for the noninvasive detection of human tumors that is not dependent on the availability of tumor biopsies.
Science translational medicine 11/2012; 4(162):162ra154. · 10.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2. Thirty percent of patients recur after first line treatment, and metastatic TNBC (mTNBC) has a poor prognosis with median survival of one year. Here, we present initial analyses of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing data from 14 prospective metastatic mTNBC. We have cataloged the collection of somatic genomic alterations in these advanced tumors; particularly those that might inform targeted therapies. Genes mutated in multiple tumors included TP53, LRP1B, HERC1, CDH5, RB1, and NF1. Notable genes involved in focal structural events were CTNNA1, PTEN, FBXW7, BRCA2, WT1, FGFR1, KRAS, HRAS, ARAF, BRAF, and PGCP. Homozygous deletion of CTNNA1 was detected in 2 of 6 African Americans. RNA sequencing revealed consistent overexpression of the FOXM1 gene, when tumor gene expression was compared to nonmalignant breast samples. Using an outlier analysis of gene expression comparing one cancer to all the others, we detected expression patterns unique to each patient's tumor. Integrative DNA/RNA analysis provided evidence for deregulation of mutated genes, including the monoallelic expression of TP53 mutations. Finally, molecular alterations in several cancers supported targeted therapeutic intervention on clinical trials with known inhibitors, particularly for alterations in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathways. In conclusion, whole genome and transcriptome profiling of mTNBC have provided insights into somatic events occurring in this difficult to treat cancer. These genomic data have guided patients to investigational treatment trials and provide hypotheses for future trials in this irremediable cancer.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 11/2012; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the treatment of cancer have focused on targeting genomic aberrations with selective therapeutic agents. In rare tumors, where large-scale clinical trials are daunting, this targeted genomic approach offers a new perspective and hope for improved treatments. Cancers of the ampulla of Vater are rare tumors that comprise only about 0.2% of gastrointestinal cancers. Consequently, they are often treated as either distal common bile duct or pancreatic cancers. METHODS: We analyzed a DNA from a resected cancer of the ampulla of Vater and whole blood DNA, from a 63 year-old man who underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy, by whole genome sequencing achieving 37 and 40x coverage respectively. We determined somatic mutations and structural alterations. RESULTS: We identified relevant aberrations including deleterious mutations of KRAS and SMAD4 as well as a homozygous focal deletion of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene. These findings suggest that these tumors have a distinct oncogenesis than either common bile duct cancer or pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, this combination of genomic aberrations suggests a therapeutic context for dual mTOR/PI3K inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: Whole genome sequencing can elucidate an oncogenic context and expose potential therapeutic vulnerabilities in rare cancers.
Genome Medicine 07/2012; 4(7):56. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The longitudinal evolution of a myeloma genome from diagnosis to plasma cell leukemia has not previously been reported. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 4 purified tumor samples and patient germline DNA drawn over a 5-year period in a t(4;14) multiple myeloma patient. Tumor samples were acquired at diagnosis, first relapse, second relapse, and end-stage secondary plasma cell leukemia (sPCL). In addition to the t(4;14), all tumor time points also shared 10 common single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) on WGS comprising shared initiating events. Interestingly, we observed genomic sequence variants that waxed and waned with time in progressive tumors, suggesting the presence of multiple independent, yet related, clones at diagnosis that rose and fell in dominance. Five newly acquired SNVs, including truncating mutations of RB1 and ZKSCAN3, were observed only in the final sPCL sample suggesting leukemic transformation events. This longitudinal WGS characterization of the natural history of a high-risk myeloma patient demonstrated tumor heterogeneity at diagnosis with shifting dominance of tumor clones over time and has also identified potential mutations contributing to myelomagenesis as well as transformation from myeloma to overt extramedullary disease such as sPCL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene.
We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations.
Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P=8.5x10(-7)). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P=2.0x10(-6)).
The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 01/2012; 366(2):141-9. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a systematic study of top susceptibility variants from a genome-wide association (GWA) study of bipolar disorder to gain insight into the functional consequences of genetic variation influencing disease risk. We report here the results of experiments to explore the effects of these susceptibility variants on DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human cerebellum samples. Among the top susceptibility variants, we identified an enrichment of cis regulatory loci on mRNA expression (eQTLs), and a significant excess of quantitative trait loci for DNA CpG methylation, hereafter referred to as methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Bipolar disorder susceptibility variants that cis regulate both cerebellar expression and methylation of the same gene are a very small proportion of bipolar disorder susceptibility variants. This finding suggests that mQTLs and eQTLs provide orthogonal ways of functionally annotating genetic variation within the context of studies of pathophysiology in brain. No lymphocyte mQTL enrichment was found, suggesting that mQTL enrichment was specific to the cerebellum, in contrast to eQTLs. Separately, we found that using mQTL information to restrict the number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms studied enhances our ability to detect a significant association. With this restriction a priori informed by the observed functional enrichment, we identified a significant association (rs12618769, P(bonferroni)<0.05) from two other GWA studies (TGen+GAIN; 2191 cases and 1434 controls) of bipolar disorder, which we replicated in an independent GWA study (WTCCC). Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of integrating functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression and DNA methylation to advance the biological understanding of bipolar disorder.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 3 January 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2011.174.