[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effector function of natural killer (NK) cells is modulated by surface expression of a range of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that interact with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands. We describe the use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays that allow easy and quick detection of 16 KIR genes and the presence/absence of KIR-ligands based on allelic discrimination at codon 80 in the HLA-A/B Bw4 and HLA-C C1/C2 genes. These methods overcome the tedious and expensive nature of conventional KIR genotyping and HLA class I typing using sequence-specific primer (SSP) PCR, sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO) hybridization or sequence-based typing (SBT). Using these two cost-effective assays, we measured the frequencies of KIRs, KIR-ligands and KIR/KIR-ligand pairs in a cohort of Black women recruited in South Africa.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: South Africa has a high burden of infectious diseases, including a large portion that are of bacterial origin. This section reviews the national burden of disease and levels of antibiotic resistance in common bacterial infections in the human population. The consequences of resistance on clinical outcomes, through either treatment failures or the development of more virulent infections, are largely unknown. The full impact of antibiotic resistance on health in South Africa therefore remains to be assessed.
South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde 01/2011; 101(8 Pt 2):567-78. · 1.70 Impact Factor