[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trastuzumab has been used in the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-expressing breast cancer but its efficacy is limited due to de novo or acquired resistance. Although many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the resistance to trastuzumab, little is known concerning the role of the tumor microenvironment. Given the importance of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in the antitumor effect of trastuzumab and the abundance of adipose tissue in breast, we investigated the impact of adipocytes on ADCC.
We set up a co-culture system to study the effect of adipocytes on ADCC in vitro. The results were validated in vivo in xenograft mice.
We found that adipocytes, as well as preadipocytes, inhibited trastuzumab-mediated ADCC in HER2-expressing breast cancer cells via the secretion of soluble factors. The inhibition of ADCC was not due to a titration or a degradation of the antibody. We found that adipose cells decreased the secretion of interferon-gamma by natural killer cells, but did not alter their cytotoxicity. Pre-incubation of breast cancer cells with the conditioned medium derived from adipocytes reduced the sensitivity of cancer cells to ADCC. Using a transcriptomic approach, we found that cancer cells undergo major modifications when exposed to adipocyte-conditioned medium. Importantly, breast tumor grafted next to lipoma displayed resistance to trastuzumab in xenograft mouse models.
Collectively, our findings underline the importance of adipose tissue in the resistance to trastuzumab, and suggest that approaches targeting the adipocyte-cancer cell crosstalk may help sensitize cancer cells to trastuzumab-based therapy.
Breast cancer research: BCR 04/2015; 17(1):57. DOI:10.1186/s13058-015-0569-0 · 5.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Targeted therapies of malignancies currently consist of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and small molecule kinase inhibitors. The combination of these novel agents raises the issue of potential antagonisms. We evaluated the potential effect of four kinase inhibitors, including the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, and three PI3K inhibitors idelalisib, NVP-BEZ235 and LY294002, on the effects of the three monoclonal antibodies, rituximab and obinutuzumab (directed against CD20) and trastuzumab (directed against HER2). We found that ibrutinib potently inhibits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity exerted by all antibodies, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.2 microM for trastuzumab, 0.5 microM for rituximab and 2 microM for obinutuzumab, suggesting a lesser effect in combination with obinutuzumab than with rituximab. The four kinase inhibitors were found to inhibit phagocytosis by fresh human neutrophils, as well as antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis induced by the three antibodies. Conversely co-administration of ibrutinib with rituximab, obinutuzumab or trastuzumab did not demonstrate any inhibitory effect of ibrutinib in vivo in murine xenograft models. In conclusion, some kinase inhibitors, in particular, ibrutinib, are likely to exert inhibitory effects on innate immune cells. However, these effects do not compromise the antitumor activity of monoclonal antibodies in vivo in the models that were evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among gynecologic malignancies. The monoclonal antibody 12G4 specifically recognizes the human Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor (MISRII) that is strongly expressed in human granulosa cell tumors (GCT) and in the majority of human epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). To determine whether MISRII represents an attractive target for antibody-based tumor therapy, we first confirmed by immunohistochemistry with 12G4 its expression in all tested GCT samples (4/4) and all, but one, EOC human tissue specimens (13/14). We then demonstrated in vitro the internalization of 12G4 in MISRII(high)COV434 cells after binding to MISRII and its ability to increase the apoptosis rate (FACS, DNA fragmentation) in MISRII(high)COV434 (GCT) and MISRII(medium)NIH-OVCAR-3 (EOC) cells that express different levels of MISRII. A standard (51)Cr release assay showed that 12G4 mediates antibody-dependent cell-meditated cytotoxicity. Finally, in vivo assessment of 12G4 anti-tumor effects showed a significant reduction of tumor growth and an increase of the median survival time in mice xenografted with MISRII(high)COV434 or MISRII(medium)NIH-OVCAR-3 cells and treated with 12G4 in comparison to controls treated with an irrelevant antibody. Altogether, our data indicate that MISRII is a new promising target for the control of ovarian GCTs and EOCs. A humanized version of the 12G4 antibody, named 3C23K, is in development for the targeted therapy of MISRII-positive gynecologic cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab (RTX), a chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the CD20 antigen, has revolutionized the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Nevertheless, the relapsed/refractory rates are still high. One strategy to increase the clinical effectiveness of RTX is based on antibody-cytokine fusion protein (immunocytokine; ICK) vectorizing together at the tumor site the antibody effector activities and the cytokine co-signal required for the generation of cytotoxic cellular immunity. Such ICKs linking various antibody formats to interleukin (IL)-2 are currently being investigated in clinical trials and have shown promising results in cancer therapies. IL-15, a structurally-related cytokine, is now considered as having a better potential than IL-2 in antitumor immunotherapeutic strategies. We have previously engineered the fusion protein RLI, linking a soluble form of human IL-15Rα-sushi+ domain to human IL-15. Compared with IL-15, RLI displayed better biological activities in vitro and higher antitumor effects in vivo in murine and human cancer models. In this study, we investigated the advantages of fusing RLI to RTX. Anti-CD20-RLI kept its binding capacity to CD20, CD16 and IL-15 receptor and therefore fully retained both antibody effector functions (ADCC and CDC), and the cytokine potential of RLI. In a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse model of disseminated residual lymphoma, anti-CD20-RLI was found to induce long-term survival of 90% of mice up to at least 120 days whereas RLI and RTX, alone or in combination, just delayed the disease onset (100% of death at 28, 40 and 51 days respectively). These findings suggest that such ICK could improve the clinical efficacy of RTX, particularly in patients with refractory B-cell lymphoma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report herein the results we obtained and the limitations we experienced during the production and use of a bank of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (EBV-CTLs). To assess the feasibility and toxicity of this strategy, we selected and stored, in liquid nitrogen, 4 billion EBV-CTLs from each of the 13 selected donors. Subsequently, in a multicenter phase I/II study, 11 patients with EBV-associated lymphoma resistant to conventional treatments received 1-3 doses of 5 million EBV-CTLs/kg with 1-3 and 0-4 compatibilities for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I and HLA-II, respectively. Except for one event of fever after injection, no immediate or delayed toxicity, no graft versus host disease, and no graft rejection attributable to CTL infusion were observed. Three patients presented complete remission and 1 partial remission after treatment. Considering the clinical options currently available, and the constrains associated with CTL preparation and implementation, we conclude that CTL banks should consist of a reasonably small number of cell lines with documented specificities. This objective could be more easily achieved if the few homozygous donors for the most frequent HLA alleles of the targeted population could be made available for such a project.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1, the three identified ligands for CD80/86, are pivotal positive and negative costimulatory molecules that, among other functions, control T cell motility and formation of immune synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs). What remains incompletely understood is how CD28 leads to the activation of effector T cells (Teff) but inhibition of suppression by regulatory T cells (Tregs), while CTLA-4 and PD-L1 inhibit Teff function but are crucial for the suppressive function of Tregs. Using alloreactive human T cells and blocking antibodies, we show here by live cell dynamic microscopy that CD28, CTLA-4, and PD-L1 differentially control velocity, motility and immune synapse formation in activated Teff versus Tregs. Selectively antagonizing CD28 costimulation increased Treg dwell time with APCs and induced calcium mobilization which translated in increased Treg suppressive activity, in contrast with the dampening effect on Teff responses. The increase in Treg suppressive activity after CD28 blockade was also confirmed with polyclonal Tregs. Whereas CTLA-4 played a critical role in Teff by reversing TCR-induced STOP signals, it failed to affect motility in Tregs but was essential for formation of the Treg immune synapse. Furthermore, we identified a novel role for PD-L1-CD80 interactions in suppressing motility specifically in Tregs. Thus, our findings reveal that the three identified ligands of CD80/86, CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1, differentially control immune synapse formation and function of the human Teff and Treg cells analyzed here. Individually targeting CD28, CTLA-4 and PD-L1 might therefore represent a valuable therapeutic strategy to treat immune disorders where effector and regulatory T cell functions need to be differentially targeted.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83139. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083139 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FcγRIIIA/CD16A, the low-affinity receptor for the IgG Fc portion expressed on human CD56(dim) NK cells and involved in Ab-dependent cell cytotoxicity, is shed upon NK cell activation. We found that recombinant a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaved the ectodomain of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and a peptide for which the sequence encompasses aa 191-201 of the FcγRIIIA/CD16A stalk region but not ADAM10. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the peptide was cleaved between Ala(195) and Val(196) (i.e., 1 aa upstream of the expected position). This location of the cleavage site was confirmed by the finding that ADAM17 failed to cleave a peptide in which Ala and Val were reversed. ADAM17 was found to be expressed on NK cells, and stimulation with PMA or N-ethyl-maleimide resulted in the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and CD62L, a specific substrate of ADAM17. Selective inhibition of ADAM17 prevented the shedding of both molecules. Moreover, the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was strongly correlated with degranulation when a wide range of CD56(dim) NK cell activating receptors were stimulated, whereas both ADAM17-dependent shedding and internalization were involved in FcγRIIIA/CD16A downmodulation when the latter was engaged. Finally, the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was restricted to activated cells, suggesting that ADAM17 acts mainly, if not exclusively, in cis. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, at the molecular level that ADAM17 cleaves the stalk region of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and identified its cleavage site. The shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was at least partially ADAM17 dependent, and it may be considered as a marker of FcγRIIIA/CD16A-independent NK cell activation highly correlated with degranulation.
The Journal of Immunology 12/2013; 192(2). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1301024 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To take advantage of the large number of well-characterized mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) for the study of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) in human cells, we armed human cytotoxic lymphocytes with a mouse receptor for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies. The human ΝΚ-92 natural killer cell line was transduced with a mouse receptor gene (mCD16), which was stably expressed on the cell surface (referred to as NK-92 (mCD16) ). When tested against a B-lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL) coated with mouse anti-CD20 IgG1, IgG2a or IgG2b monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), the newly expressed mouse Fc receptor enabled the NK-92 (mCD16) cells to kill the BLCL by ADCC. Next, using the NK-92 (mCD16) we compared mouse mAbs directed at B lineage specific CD antigens for their ability to induce ADCC against human Epstein-Barr virus- infected B lymphoblastoid (for anti-CD19, -CD20 and -CD21) or against myeloma (for anti-CD38 and -CD138) target cells. Our results demonstrated that the "NK-92 (mCD16) assay" allows convenient and sensitive discrimination of mouse mAbs for their ability to mediate ADCC in a human cellular system. In addition, our results provide examples of dissociation between opsonization and target cell killing through ADCC. These "murinized" human effector cells thus represent a convenient cellular tool for the study of ADCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cover shows a modified electron microscopic image of HPV16-virus-like particle (HPV16-VLP)-internalization by NK cells. The colour added to the cover image is purely for aesthetic purposes and has no biological significance. The original, unmodified image is from Renoux et al. (pp. 3240-3252) in which the authors demonstrate that HPV16-VLPs are taken up by NK cells by macropinocytosis. CD16 is shown to play a central role in the NK cell response to HPV16, being shown to be required for viral uptake, and for granzyme and cytokine release.
European Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 41(11). DOI:10.1002/eji.201190068 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections account for more than 50% of infection-linked cancers in women worldwide. The immune system controls, at least partially, viral infection and around 90% of HPV-infected women clear the virus within two years. However, it remains unclear which immune cells are implicated in this process and no study has evaluated the direct interaction between HPVs and NK cells, a key player in host resistance to viruses and tumors. We demonstrated an NK-cell infiltration in HPV-associated preneoplastic cervical lesions. Since HPVs cannot grow in vitro, virus-like particles (VLPs) were used as a model for studying the NK-cell response against the virus. Interestingly, NK cells displayed higher cytotoxic activity and cytokine production (TNF-α and IFN-γ) in the presence of HPV-VLPs. Using flow cytometry and microscopy, we observed that NK-cell stimulation was linked to rapid VLP entry into these cells by macropinocytosis. Using CD16(+) and CD16(-) NK-cell lines and a CD16-blocking antibody, we demonstrated that CD16 is necessary for HPV-VLP internalization, as well as for degranulation and cytokine production. Thus, we show for the first time that NK cells interact with HPVs and can participate in the immune response against HPV-induced lesions.
European Journal of Immunology 11/2011; 41(11):3240-52. DOI:10.1002/eji.201141693 · 4.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against GD2 ganglioside have been shown to be effective for the treatment of neuroblastoma. Beneficial actions are, however, associated with generalized pain due to the binding of anti- GD2 mAbs to peripheral nerve fibers followed by complement activation. Neuroblastoma cells that express GD2 also express its O-acetyl derivative, O-acetyl- GD2 ganglioside (OAcGD2). Hence, we investigated the distribution of OAcGD2 in human tissues using mAb 8B6 to study the cross-reactivity of mAb 8B6 with human tissues.
The distribution of OAcGD2 was performed in normal and malignant tissues using an immunoperoxydase technique. Anti-tumor properties of mAb 8B6 were studied in vitro and in vivo in a transplanted tumor model in mice. We found that OAcGD2 is not expressed by peripheral nerve fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mAb 8B6 was very effective in the in vitro and in vivo suppression of the growth of tumor cells. Importantly, mAb 8B6 anti-tumor efficacy was comparable to that of mAb 14G2a specific to GD2.
Development of therapeutic antibodies specific to OAcGD2 may offer treatment options with reduced adverse side effects, thereby allowing dose escalation of antibodies.
PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e25220. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025220 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During serial assays designed to amplify natural killer (NK) cells in vitro, we observed that when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from human immunodeficiency virus positive (HIV+) patients were stimulated for 2 weeks with an Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphoblastic cell line and interleukin-2, a well known procedure to amplify NK cells in vitro, 44.4 ± 18% CD3CD16 T lymphocytes were recovered together with NK cells, of which 78.2% expressed an αβ T-cell receptor (TCR). To identify the T-cell compartment from which they originated (naive, antigen experienced, CD16, or CD16), we first compared the results obtained with HIV+ patients' PBMCs (where essentially all CD8 cells are antigen experienced) with those obtained from cord blood lymphocytes (essentially naive) and PBMC from healthy donors (with variable antigen experience). Two weeks after stimulation, αβ TCR CD16 T lymphocytes increased from 0.3%, 2.2%, and 8.2% to 2.5%, 7.7%, and 36.3%, for cord blood, healthy donors, and HIV+ patients, respectively. Second, using cell-sorting experiments for CD16 cells and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays, we demonstrated that a functional CD16 receptor could also be induced at the cell surface of αβ TCR CD16 T lymphocytes. Together, these results demonstrate that under stimulation conditions known to induce NK cell proliferation, a subset of αβ TCR CD16 T cells arises from antigen-experienced CD16 cells but also from antigen-experienced CD16 T lymphocytes, revealing the possibility to increase a patient's antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity potential through simple stimulation of this particular memory compartment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) are used to prepare human EBV-specific T lymphocytes (EBV-CTL) in vitro. Within an LCL, up to 5-7% the cells release infectious EBV, and this has fostered safety concerns for therapeutic applications because of the exposure of T cells to EBV. The release of infectious viruses can be prevented by ganciclovir, but this drug may seriously affect LCL growth. In the wake of these concerns, the present work was designed to compile safety data on EBV-CTL preparation for the purpose of submission to a regulatory agency. We showed that further to supernatant exclusion, the number of EBV genome copies (EBVc) associated with the EBV-CTL always made up a constant proportion of the EBVc number detected in the culture supernatant. In addition, such was the case whether infectious virus could be produced by the LCL or not, suggesting that the EBV signal detected was due to a DNA contamination rather than an infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the number of EBVc associated with the EBV-CTL was highly sensitive to DNAse treatment, and finally that EBVc could no longer be detected after the EBV-CTL had been amplified in the absence of LCL. Consequently, during in vitro EBV-CTL preparation, either T cells cannot be infected or they die rapidly after EBV infection.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 12/2010; 59(12):1867-75. DOI:10.1007/s00262-010-0913-2 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intercellular transfer of cell surface proteins by trogocytosis is common and could affect T cell responses. Yet, the role of trogocytosis in T cell function is still elusive, and it is unknown whether a molecule, once captured by T cells, harbors the same biological properties as in donor APC. In this study, we showed that FcgammaR as well as the associated FcRgamma subunit could be detected at high levels on murine and human T cells after their intercellular transfer from FcgammaR-expressing APC. Capture of FcgammaR occurred during coculture of T cells with FcgammaR-expressing APC upon Ab- or Ag-mediated T cell stimulation. Once captured by T cells, FcgammaR were expressed in a conformation compatible with physiological function and conferred upon T cells the ability to bind immune complexes and to provision B cells with this source of Ag. However, we were unable to detect downstream signal or signaling-dependent function following the stimulation of FcgammaR captured by T cells, and biochemical studies suggested the improper integration of FcgammaR in the recipient T cell membrane. Thus, our study demonstrates that T cells capture FcgammaR that can efficiently exert ligand-binding activity, which, per se, could have functional consequences in T cell-B cell cooperation.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2009; 183(10):6102-13. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.0900821 · 4.92 Impact Factor