B. Bates

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)34.13 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study describes the distribution of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glucose concentrations in the combined year 1 (2008-2009), year 2 (2009-2010) and year 3 (2010-2011) of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme. The NDNS rolling programme is a nationally representative survey of food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status of people aged 1.5 years and over living in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The study population comprised survey members who completed three or four days of dietary recording and who provided a blood sample. After excluding survey members with self-reported diabetes (n=25), there were 1016 results for HbA1c and 942 for glucose (not the same individuals in each case). Around 5.4% of men and 1.7% of women aged 19-64 years, and 5.1% of men and 5.9% of women aged ≥65 years had impaired fasting glucose (glucose concentrations 6.1-6.9 mmol/L). Over 20% of men aged ≥65 years had fasting glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off for diabetes (≥7 mmol/L) compared to 2.1% of women of similar age (p=0.007). Similarly, 16.4% of men had HbA1c concentrations ≥6.5%, compared to 1.5% of women (p=0.003). Children and teenagers had fasting glucose and HbA1c values largely within the normal range. To conclude, this is the first study to provide data on the distribution of HbA1c and glucose concentrations in a nationally representative sample of the British population. The high prevalence of men aged ≥65 years with HbA1c and glucose concentrations above the clinical cut-off of diabetes warrants further attention.
    Journal of epidemiology and community health 09/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have considered the combined effects of home-related determinants on children's diet. The present study investigated independent associations between sociodemographic and food practice (SFP) characteristics and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children and the combined effects of SFP on consumption using pattern analysis. Diet was assessed using 4 d food diaries, SFP were collected using computer-assisted personal interview. Linear regressions were used to test associations; principal component analysis was used to identify patterns of SFP characteristics. Regression of fruit (g/d) and vegetables (g/d) v. component scores of each pattern were performed. UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey Rolling Programme (2008-2010). Children aged 1·5-10 years (n 642). Significant associations were found between fruit and vegetable consumption and household socio-economic status. Pattern 1, which was positively correlated with household structure characteristics, was associated with increased fruit consumption (P < 0·001). Pattern 2, characterised by positive correlations for socio-economic status, fruit availability and organic food purchase, and negatively correlated with household size and the number of children per household, was associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption (both P < 0·001). Pattern 3, characterised by high frequency of eating out and eating takeaway, was associated with a lower consumption of both fruit (P < 0·012) and vegetables (P < 0·023). Patterns of SFP determinants may be more informative than individual characteristics in relation to dietary outcomes. Results have public health implications on the healthfulness of meals eaten out of home and in takeaways, as well as the need to reduce diet inequality in larger households with lower socio-economic status.
    Public Health Nutrition 08/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Eating context is the immediate environment of each eating occasion (EO). There is limited knowledge on the effects of the eating context on food consumption in children, due to the difficulty in measuring the multiple eating contexts children experience throughout the day. This study applied ecological momentary assessment using food diaries to explore the relationships between eating context and fruit and vegetable consumption in UK children. METHODS: Using 4 d unweighed food diaries, data were collected for 642 children aged 1.5-10y in two years of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008--2010). Participants recorded all foods and drinks consumed at each EO, where and with whom the food was consumed, whether the TV was on and if eaten at a table. Mixed logistic regression and mixed multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate associations between eating contexts and fruit and vegetables (FV) consumed by quartiles. RESULTS: Of 16,840 EOs, 73% took place at home and 31% with parents only. Frequency of eating alone and with friends increased with age. Compared to eating at home, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit at care outside home (>10-50g OR:2.39; >50-100g OR:2.12); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:3.53; >100g OR:1.88) and vegetables at school (>30-60g OR:3.56). Compared to eating with parents only, children aged 1.5-3y were more likely to consume fruit with friends (>10-50g OR:2.69; >50-100g OR:3.49), and with carer and other children/others (>10-50g OR:2.25); children aged 4-6y were more likely to consume fruit (>50-100g OR:1.96) and vegetables with friends (>30-60g OR:3.56). Children of all ages were more likely to eat vegetables when the TV was off than on and at a table than not at table. CONCLUSIONS: The use of food diaries to capture multiple eating contexts and detailed fruit and vegetable consumption data was demonstrated at a population level. Higher odds of FV consumption were seen from structured settings such as school and care outside home than at home, as well as when eating at a table and the TV off. This study highlights eating contexts where provision of fruit and vegetables could be improved, especially at home. Future research should take eating context into consideration when planning interventions to target children's food consumption and eating behaviour.
    International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10/2012; 9(1):126. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2012; 71(OCE2). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High saturated fat intake is an established risk factor for several chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to report dietary intakes and main food sources of fat and fatty acids (FA) from the first year of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme in the UK. Dietary data were collected using 4 d estimated food diaries (n 896) and compared with dietary reference values (DRV) and previous NDNS results. Total fat provided 34-36 % food energy (FE) across all age groups, which was similar to previous surveys for adults. Men (19-64 years) and older girls (11-18 years) had mean intakes just above the DRV, while all other groups had mean total fat intakes of < 35 % FE. SFA intakes were lower compared with previous surveys, ranging from 13 to 15 % FE, but still above the DRV. Mean MUFA intakes were 12·5 % FE for adults and children aged 4-18 years and all were below the DRV. Mean n-3 PUFA intake represented 0·7-1·1 % FE. Compared with previous survey data, the direction of change for n-3 PUFA was upwards for all age groups, although the differences in absolute terms were very small. Trans-FA intakes were lower than in previous NDNS and were less than 2 g/d for all age groups, representing 0·8 % FE and lower than the DRV in all age groups. In conclusion, dietary intake of fat and FA is moving towards recommended levels for the UK population. However, there remains room for considerable further improvement.
    The British journal of nutrition 07/2011; 107(3):405-15. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of the present paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS rolling programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64 years and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18 years. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10 years, 11-18 years and 19-64 years). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children aged 4-10 years had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P < 0·0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children aged 4-10 years (P < 0·0001), contributing 13·7-14·6 % in 2008-09 compared with 16·8 % in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46 %) of girls aged 11-18 years and women aged 19-64 years (21 %) with mean daily Fe intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake. Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2011; 106(12):1899-914. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2011; 70(OCE1). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2011; 70(OCE1). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2010; 69(OCE6). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2010; 69(OCE6). · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter provides a brief overview of the background, rationale, aims, and limitations of the Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (LIDNS).Details of the survey design and methods are given in Chapter 2. LIDNS was designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the food consumption and nutritional status of a nationally representative sample of respondents living in low income households in the United Kingdom.1 It also assessed numerous socio-economic, environmental, behavioural and attitudinal factors, and lifestyle and health characteristics which relate to food consumption, nutritional status and nutrition-related health.The purpose of the survey was to provide an evidence base that would contribute to the development of food policy,which in turn would help to reduce health inequalities.The need for such a survey is outlined in Section1.2. LIDNS was commissioned by the Food Standards Agency (‘the Agency’) and was carried out by a consortium of three organisations, led by the Health Research Group at the National Centre for Social Research, and including the Nutritional Sciences Research Division at King’s College London, and the Department of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College London Medical School.Haematological and biochemical analyses of blood samples were carried out in the Department of Haematology, RoyalVictoria Infirmary,Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Institute of Food Research, Norwich. Fieldwork in Northern Ireland was carried out by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency.