[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the 20th century, three influenza pandemics killed approximately 100 million people. The traditional method of influenza vaccine manufacturing is based on using chicken eggs. However, the necessity of the availability of millions of fertile eggs in the event of a pandemic has led research to focus on the development of cell culture-derived vaccines, which offer shorter lead-in times and greater flexibility of production. So far, the cell substrates being evaluated and in use include Vero, Madin-Darby canine kidney, PER.C6 and insect cells. However, Vero cells are the most widely accepted among others. This review introduces briefly the concepts of advanced cell culture-derived influenza vaccine production and highlights the advantages of these vaccines in terms of efficiency, speed and immunogenicity based on the clinical data obtained from different studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccine j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / v a c c i n e Thymosin-alpha 1 (Zadaxin TM) enhances the immunogenicity of an adjuvated pandemic H1N1v influenza vaccine (Focetria TM) in hemodialyzed patients: A pilot study a b s t r a c t Background: Although influenza vaccination is widely recommended for immunosuppressed people, the same immune dysfunction that can increase the risk of contracting influenza might also compromise vaccine effectiveness, especially during pandemics. Clinical data have highlighted the role of adjuvants in improving vaccine efficacy. As uremic patients are especially vulnerable to infections, it is recommended that they should be vaccinated yearly against influenza. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical trial, conducted in hemodialyzed patients with an adjuvated pandemic H1N1v influenza vaccine alone and combined with Thymosin-alpha 1. Methods: Subjects were subdivided into 3 treatment groups receiving: the adjuvated pandemic influenza vaccine (Focetria TM) only (first treatment group), and the Vaccine + Thymosin alpha 1 (Zadaxin TM) at a dose of 3.2 and 6.4 mg (second and third treatment groups respectively). The immunoresponse was assessed on days 0, 21, 42, 84 and 168 after vaccine administration by means of Hemagglutination Inhi-bition (HI), Microneutralization (MN) and Single Radial Hemolysis (SRH) assays. The CHMP regards HI as the gold standard test to evaluate the immune response to influenza vaccines before influenza vaccines are licensed. The CHMP criteria are slightly different in adults (18–60-year-old subjects) and the elderly (>60 years old). Indeed, 40% of seroconversion, 70% of subjects seroprotected 21 days after vaccination, and a 2.5-fold increase in GMR (Geometric Mean Ratio) are required in adults, while in the elderly, the corresponding threshold values are: 30%, 60% and a 2-fold increase. All these criteria must be met for the licensing of a pandemic influenza vaccine. Safety evaluation was performed by means of Adverse Event (AE) recording, laboratory assays (hema-tology and chemistry), electrocardiogram, and assessment of vital signs. Results: Three populations were considered: Intention-To-Treat (ITT) (94 patients), Per Protocol (PP) (82 patients), and Safety population (99 patients). With regard to the Geometric Mean Titer (GMT) and the Geometric Mean Ratio (GMR) of HI on Day 21 in the ITT population, both "Vaccine + Thymosin alpha 1" groups presented better results than the "Vaccine only" group. A large proportion of ITT patients in the two Vaccine + Thymosin alpha 1 groups achieved seroconver-sion by Day 21. On Day 42, the decrease in the GMT of HI was greater in the Vaccine + Thymosin alpha 1 groups than in the vaccine only group. Similar results were obtained in the PP population. The CHMP criteria were fully met in the groups treated with Vaccine + Thymosin alpha 1. No AE was found to be related to Thymosin alpha 1 nor to the Focetria vaccine. Conclusions: Although further studies in larger hemodialyzed populations are necessary, it can be con-cluded that Thymosin alpha 1 enhanced the immunogenicity of the pandemic influenza vaccine used. Moreover, it proved safe and well tolerated, and did not affect hematology or blood-chemistry values.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although influenza vaccination is widely recommended for immunosuppressed people, the same immune dysfunction that can increase the risk of contracting influenza might also compromise vaccine effectiveness, especially during pandemics. Clinical data have highlighted the role of adjuvants in improving vaccine efficacy. As uremic patients are especially vulnerable to infections, it is recommended that they should be vaccinated yearly against influenza. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical trial, conducted in hemodialyzed patients with an adjuvated pandemic H1N1v influenza vaccine alone and combined with Thymosin-alpha 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor of the serous membranes for which there is currently no effective curative modality. Recent data suggest that hyperactivation of the tyrosine kinase SRC has a key role in MM development and therefore this kinase represents an important molecular target for MM therapy. We tested new pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine SRC inhibitors on a panel of MM cell lines expressing the active form of SRC. These SRC inhibitors exerted a significant proapoptotic effect on MM cells without affecting the normal mesothelial cell line MET-5A, supporting a possible use of these SRC inhibitors for a safe treatment of MM. We also showed that SRC inhibitor-induced apoptosis occurred concomitantly with an increase in the nuclear stability of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. This finding is remarkable considering that loss of nuclear p27 expression is a well-established adverse prognostic factor in MM, and p27 nuclear localization is crucial for its tumor-suppressive function. Consistently, SRC inhibition seems to promote the increase in p27 nuclear level also by inactivating the AKT kinase and downregulating cyclin D1, which would otherwise delay p27 nuclear import and provoke its cytoplasmic accumulation. To determine whether p27 stabilization has a direct role in apoptosis induced by SRC inhibition, we stably silenced the CDKN1B gene, encoding p27, in MSTO-211H and REN mesothelioma cells by transduction with lentiviral vectors expressing short hairpin RNAs against the CDKN1B transcript. Strikingly, p27 silencing was able to suppress the apoptosis induced by these SRC inhibitors in both MM cell lines, suggesting that p27 has a crucial proapoptotic role in MM cells treated with SRC inhibitors. Our findings reveal a new mechanism, dependent on p27 nuclear stabilization, by which SRC inhibition can induce apoptosis in MM cells and provide a new rationale for the use of SRC inhibitors in MM therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Given the important role of adjuvants in prophylactic vaccines, identification and development of new adjuvants with enhanced efficacy and safety is necessary. The use of adjuvants with immunopotentiating properties that can direct the immune responses to humoral or cell-mediated immunity and can induce T-cell responses has made it possible to design more protective vaccines. Although current regulations focus on traditional adjuvants, notably aluminum and calcium salts, advances have been made in regulatory considerations. The regulatory agencies for the evaluation of medicinal products are actively drafting guidance on requirements for the evaluation of new adjuvants. This article briefly summarizes the most widely studied adjuvants in vaccination, including those licensed for human vaccines and the regulatory aspects relevant to adjuvant quality at development stages.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of particular interest because they are being tested using cell and gene therapies for a number of human diseases. MSCs represent a rare population in tissues. Therefore, it is essential to grow MSCs in vitro before putting them into therapeutic use. This is compromised by senescence, limiting the proliferative capacity of MSCs. We analyzed the in vitro senescence of rat MSCs, because this animal is a widespread model for preclinical cell therapy studies. After initial expansion, MSCs showed an increased growth doubling time, lost telomerase activity, and expressed senescence-associated beta-galactosidase. Senescence was accompanied by downregulation of several genes involved in stem cell self-renewal. Of interest, several genes involved in DNA repair also showed a significant downregulation. Entry into senescence occurred with characteristic changes in Retinoblastoma (RB) expression patterns. Rb1 and p107 genes expression decreased during in vitro cultivation. In contrast, pRb2/p130 became the prominent RB protein. This suggests that RB2/P130 could be a marker of senescence or that it even plays a role in triggering the process in MSCs.
Stem cells and development 09/2009; 18(7):1033-42. DOI:10.1089/scd.2008.0324 · 3.73 Impact Factor