ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Food sources and intakes of zinc and heme iron may differ between Western and Asian populations. However, all of the studies on the association between zinc and heme iron intakes and colorectal cancer have been conducted in Western populations. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between zinc and heme iron intakes and colorectal cancer risk in a Japanese general population. DESIGN: We conducted a large, population-based prospective study in 39,721 men and 45,376 women aged 45-74 y. Heme iron and zinc intakes were measured by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire in either 1995 or 1998. RESULTS: During as many as 808,053 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2006, 1284 colorectal cancer cases were identified. In multivariate-adjusted models, zinc and heme iron intakes were not associated with colorectal cancer in either men or women. In comparison with the lowest quartile, the HRs (95% CIs) for developing colorectal cancer in the fourth quartile of zinc and heme iron intakes were 0.77 (0.58, 1.03; P-trend = 0.2) and 1.06 (0.79, 1.42; P-trend = 0.6), respectively, for men and 1.05 (0.77, 1.44; P-trend = 0.4) and 0.88 (0.61, 1.29; P-trend = 0.4), respectively, for women. CONCLUSION: Our results in a Japanese population with lower intakes and different major food sources of zinc and heme iron in comparison with those of Western populations suggest that zinc and heme iron intakes are not associated with colorectal cancer.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 09/2012; 96(4):864-873. · 6.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Isoflavones are structurally similar to 17β-estradiol and may be able to prevent gastric cancer. However, there is contradictory evidence concerning the relation between the intake of soy food, which is rich in isoflavones, and gastric cancer. The association with gastric cancer might differ between isoflavones and soy foods, and research on the effects of isoflavone intake alone on gastric cancer is needed.
We investigated the association between isoflavone intake and the incidence of gastric cancer.
We conducted a large, population-based prospective study of 39,569 men and 45,312 women aged 45-74 y. Dietary soy and isoflavone intakes were measured by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 1998.
During 806,550 person-years of follow-up, we identified 1249 new gastric cancer cases. Isoflavone intake was not associated with gastric cancer in either men or women. Compared with the lowest quartile, the HR and 95% CI for developing gastric cancer in the fourth quartile of isoflavone intake was 1.00 (0.81, 1.24) for men and 1.07 (0.77, 1.50) for women. In a stratified analysis by exogenous female hormones (women only), however, we found an increasing trend in risk of gastric cancer associated with higher isoflavone intakes among exogenous female hormone users (P-trend = 0.03) but not for nonusers (P-interaction = 0.04).
The current study does not support the hypothesis that higher intakes of isoflavones prevent gastric cancer in either men or women.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2011; 95(1):147-54. · 6.67 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Despite the popular use of vitamin supplements and several prospective cohort studies investigating their effect on cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD), scientific data supporting their benefits remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be partly explained by the fact that use of supplements is an inconsistent behavior in individuals. We examined whether vitamin supplement use patterns affect cancer and CVD risk in a population-based cohort study in Japan.
A total of 28,903 men and 33,726 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study cohort, who answered questions about vitamin supplement use in the first survey from 1990-1994 and the second survey from 1995-1998, were categorized into four groups (never use, past use, recent use, and consistent use) and followed to the end of 2006 for cancer and 2005 for CVD. Sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to describe the relative risks of cancer and CVD associated with vitamin supplement use.
During follow-up, 4501 cancer and 1858 CVD cases were identified. Multivariate adjusted analysis revealed no association of any pattern of vitamin supplement use with the risk of cancer and CVD in men. In women, consistent use was associated with lower risk of CVD (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.89), whereas past (HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33) and recent use (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.52) were associated with higher risk of cancer.
To our knowledge, this is the first prospective cohort study to examine simultaneously the associations between vitamin supplement use patterns and risk of cancer and CVD. This prospective cohort study demonstrated that vitamin supplement use has little effect on the risk of cancer or CVD in men. In women, however, consistent vitamin supplement use might reduce the risk of CVD. Elevated risk of cancer associated with past and recent use of vitamin supplements in women may be partly explained by preexisting diseases or unhealthy background, but we could not totally control for this in our study.
BMC Public Health 01/2011; 11:540. · 2.00 Impact Factor