[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concussion is the most common type of traumatic brain injury, with headache being the most frequent symptom of mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) (including dizziness, vomiting, nausea, lack of motor coordination or difficulty balancing). Concussion may be caused by a blow to the head, or by acceleration forces without a direct impact. Often, MTBI occurs as the result of a sports injury. Loss of consciousness is always present, unlike vomiting. Therefore, we hypothesize vomiting to be considered as a cardinal sign of concussion. Stimulation of vomiting centres finally triggers vomiting. Professional boxers and mixed martial arts competitions reluctantly agree with stringent rules and protective clothing. We discuss the issue of further protection for those engaged in these and other sports.
Medical Hypotheses 01/2012; 78(1):23-5. · 1.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of refractory partial epileptic seizures with or without secondary generalisation in patients older than 12 years was approved in Europe in 1994 and in the United States in 1997. We have studied the efficacy of VNS in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy hospitalized in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital Centre Zagreb. From 1997 to 2001 we have implanted VNS in 11 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, who were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) negative and from May 2007 to May 2009 in 11 patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, 9 of them were MRI positive, and were inoperable due to localisation of the pathomorphologic changes (ganglioglioma, hamartoma, various types of cortical dysplasia, porencephalic cysts), 2 were MR negative. In the group of MRI negative patients 1 patient had complex partial seizures (CPS), 6 patients had CPS with secondary generalisation, 2 patients had primary generalized epilepsy (PGE) including myoclonic, absence, atonic and tonic-clonic seizures, one patient had PGE and CPS, and 3 patients had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). In the group of MRI positive patients one patient had elementary partial seizures (EPS) and CPS, two patients had EPS and CPS with secondary generalisation, one patient had CPS, 3 patients had CPS with secondary generalisation, and 2 patients had CPS with secondary generalisation as well as atonic seizures. After continuous follow-up of 11 MRI negative patients during 5 years and 2 MRI negative patients during one year there was decrease in mean-seizure frequency of 51.67%. After continuous follow-up of 9 MRI positive patients during 2 years there was decrease in mean-seizure frequency of 61.9%. The most frequent side effects were hoarseness, throat pain and cough in the "on phase" of the VNS, but they were mild and transitory. We can conclude that VNS was effective mode of therapy in our group of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy.
Collegium antropologicum 09/2011; 35(3):755-60. · 0.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Physicians occasionally encounter the punch-drunk syndrome among boxers after longlasting careers characterized by blows to the head. The list of sports leading to punch-drunk syndrome is rapidly increasing, making it a notable public health problem. A lack of specific findings leads to defects in reporting the condition, and consequently to delay in treatment. Although the rigorous enforcement of sport rules and constant improvements of sporting equipment have decreased the occurrence of the syndrome, early detection of punch-drunk syndrome is crucial and would have comprehensive benefits. Two groups of signs and symptoms can be identified: dementia and Parkinsonism. A prompt diagnosis with a correct classification of the suspected cases is crucial. Therefore, we offer an overview of the symptomatology as well as proposing the introduction of a screening method among risk groups based on generic and minute neurological examination and dementia testing.
Medical Hypotheses 07/2011; 77(4):633-7. · 1.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 1998, a teleradiology system was established in Croatia. It connects 34 CT, MRI and DSA scanners in 29 hospitals with a referral centre in the neurosurgery department in Zagreb. In the first three years of its use, the network saved more than 400,000 km of patient transportation (i.e. without a teleconsultation, all of the patients would have had to be transported to the nearest referral neurosurgical unit). During the first seven years, an archive with 25,366 expert opinions was collected. A total of 7103 (28%) expert opinions were provided for the distant regional hospitals. The most common diagnoses for patients from regional hospitals were neurotrauma (53%), cerebrovascular diseases (22%) and brain tumours (19%). The teleradiology system was used less often for lumbar disc disease (4%), hydrocephalus or other neurosurgical disorders (2%). The most valuable results from teleradiology were the decisions about proper and effective patient treatment. In Croatia, the national teleradiology network for neurosurgery has speeded up therapy, avoided unnecessary travelling for patients and reduced costs.
Journal of telemedicine and telecare 02/2009; 15(3):142-4. · 0.92 Impact Factor