[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) induces greater cardiac remodeling than either condition alone. However, this association has been poorly addressed in senescent rats. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of streptozotocin-induced DM on ventricular remodeling and oxidative stress in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Fifty 18 month old male SHR were divided into two groups: control (SHR, n = 25) and diabetic (SHR-DM, n = 25). DM was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i.p.). After nine weeks, the rats underwent echocardiography and myocardial functional study in left ventricular (LV) isolated papillary muscle preparations. LV samples were obtained to measure myocyte diameters, interstitial collagen fraction, and hydroxyproline concentration. Gene expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms was evaluated by RT-PCR. Serum oxidative stress was assessed by measuring lipid hydroperoxide concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Statistics: Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05.
SHR-DM presented higher blood glucose (487 +/- 29 vs. 89.1 +/- 21.1 mg/dL) and lower body weight (277 +/- 26 vs. 339 +/- 38 g). Systolic blood pressure did not differ between groups. Echocardiography showed LV and left atrial dilation, LV diastolic and relative wall thickness decrease, and LV systolic and diastolic function impairment in SHR-DM. Papillary muscle study showed decreased myocardial contractility and contractile reserve in SHR-DM. Myocyte diameters and myocardial interstitial collagen fraction and hydroxyproline concentration did not differ between groups. Increased serum pro-oxidant activity and gene expression of ANP and beta/alpha-MyHC ratio were observed in DM.
Diabetes mellitus induces cardiac dilation and functional impairment, increases oxidative stress and activates fetal gene program in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius)(Poepp.& Endl.) on clinical parameters under diabetic conditions. The aqueous extract of yacon tuberous roots (YRAE; 0.76g fructan kg(-1) body weight) was prepared at the moment of each administration. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8): control group (C); group that received YRAE (Y); untreated diabetic group (DM1); and diabetic group treated with YRAE (Y-DM1). The diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (60mg kg-1 body weight). The animals from Y2 and Y-DM1 received YRAE by gavage, at 7-day intervals, for 30 days. The aqueous extract of yacon roots decreased (p<0.05) the water and food intake in diabetic rats treated with YRAE (Y-DM1). YRAE treatment reduced (p<0.05) glycaemia, total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL and triacylglycerol levels in diabetic rats (YRAE). HDL, urea and creatinine levels did not differ (p>0.05) between the Y and Y-DM1 groups. YRAE normalised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, when comparing DM1 and Y-DM1 rats, but had no effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH). In conclusion, YRAE was sufficient for controlling water and food consumption, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, and promote the reduction of the ALT, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect in rats with STZ-induced DM1.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency on cardiac metabolism, morphology and function. Thus, we investigated the relationship of these changes with the length of the nutrient restriction. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Male weanling Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: C2(n=24), animals were fed an AIN-93G diet with 1,000 IU VD/kg of chow and were kept under fluorescent light for 2 months; D2(n=22), animals were fed a VD - deficient AIN-93G diet and were kept under incandescent light for 2 months; C4(n=21) animals were kept in the same conditions of C2 for 4 months; D4(n=23) animals were kept in the same conditions of D2 for 4 months. Biochemical analyses showed lower beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase activity and higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in VD deficient animals. Furthermore, VD deficiency was related to increased cytokines release, oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis. Echocardiographic data showed left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and lower fractional shortening and ejection fraction in VD deficient animals. Difference became evident in the LDH activity, LV weight, right ventricle weight, and LV mass after 4 months of VD deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: -Our data indicate that VD deficiency is associated to energetic metabolic changes, cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and apoptosis, cardiac hypertrophy, left chambers alterations and systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, length of the restriction influenced these cardiac changes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the numerous coadjuvant therapies that could influence the incidence and progression of diabetic complications, antioxidants and flavonoids are currently being tested in clinical trials. We investigated the effect of quercetin on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced (60 mg/kg body mass, by intraperitoneal injection) diabetic rats. A total of 32 female Wistar rats were distributed among 4 groups as follows: control (G1); control treated with quercetin (G2); diabetic (G3); and diabetic treated with quercetin (G4). Quercetin administered to pregnant diabetic rats controlled dyslipidemia and improved lipid profiles in diabetes mellitus, regulated oxidative stress by reducing the generation of lipid hydroperoxides, and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2013; 91(2):171-7. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Determine the influence of serum thiamine, GPx activity and serum protein carbonyl concentrations in hospital mortality in patients with septic shock.
Materials and Methods
This prospective study included all patients with septic shock on admission or during ICU stay, over the age of 18, admitted to one of the 3 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of the Botucatu Medical School, from January to August 2012. Demographic information, clinical evaluation and blood sample were taken within the first 72 hours of the patient’s admission or within 72 hours after septic shock diagnosis for serum thiamine, GPx activity and protein carbonyl determination.
One hundred and eight consecutive patients were evaluated. The mean age was 57.5 ± 16.0 years, 63% were male, 54.6% died in ICU and 71.3% had thiamine deficiency. Thiamine was not associated with oxidative stress. Neither vitamin B1 levels nor the GPx activity were associated with outcomes in these patients. However, protein carbonyl concentration was associated with increased mortality.
In patients with septic shock, oxidative stress was associated with mortality. On the other hand, thiamine was not associated with oxidative stress or mortality in these patients.
Journal of critical care 01/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine (20mg/L) intake on cadmium (15mg/L) accumulation in the rat blood, testes, epididymis and prostate as well as cadmium-induced changes to the antioxidant defense system of the epididymis. Caffeine reduced the cadmium concentration in all tissues analyzed. Meanwhile, cadmium reduced catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the epididymis. Caffeine increased SOD activity, catalase and glutathione tissue expression and sustains the cadmium's effect on catalase and GSP-Px activity. No differences in the expression of metallothionein and lipid peroxidation were observed among the different treatments in the epididymis. In conclusion, low doses of cadmium alter the antioxidant enzymatic profile of the epididymis, but not induced oxidative lipid damage. Caffeine intake reduces overall cadmium accumulation in the organism and enhances the levels of antioxidant protein expression in the epididymis, thus exerting a protective effect against this metal.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported the effects of quercetin on metabolic and hormonal profile as well as serum antioxidant activities in a model of MSG (monosodium glutamate)-induced obesity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: MSG group, submitted to neonatal treatment with high doses of MSG, administrated subcutaneously during 10days, from 2day-old; control groups, which received the same volume of saline. After completing 30day-old, these groups were subdivided into 4 groups: control and MSG groups treated and non-treated with quercetin at doses of 75mg/kg body weight (i.p.) over 42days. BW gain and food consumption were higher in MSG treated rats and quercetin significantly reduced BW by 25%. While MSG increased triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and fractions, and reduced HDL concentrations, administration of quercetin normalized HDL-cholesterol and reduced others lipids. Insulin, leptin, glucose and creatinine levels were raised in MSG-treated rats and reduced after quercetin treatment. Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were lower after MSG-quercetin combination compared to rats given only MSG. MSG-quercetin combination augmented total protein and urea levels as well as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in contrast to MSG-treated animals. Quercetin normalized serum lipid and glucose profile and minimized the MSG-related toxic effects, which was associated to its antioxidant properties.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2012; 50(10):3556-61. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy.
Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g) were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C) or taurine-deficient (T (-)). Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (-) group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart.
Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (-) rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals.
These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41439. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli.
Natural product research 10/2011; 26(16):1553-7. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melatonin is associated with direct or indirect actions upon female reproductive function. However, its effects on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovulation are not clearly defined. This study aimed to verify whether exposure to long-term melatonin is able to cause reproductive hormonal disturbances as well as their role on sex steroid receptors in the rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.
Twenty-four adult Wistar rats, 60 days old (+/-250 g) were randomly divided into two groups. Control group (Co): received 0.9% NaCl 0.3 mL+95% ethanol 0.04 mL as vehicle; Melatonin-treated group (MEL): received vehicle+melatonin [100 μg/100 g BW/day] both intraperitoneally during 60 days. All animals were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus at 4 a.m.
Melatonin significantly reduced the plasma levels of LH and 17 beta-estradiol, while urinary 6-sulfatoximelatonin (STM) was increased at the morning estrus. In addition, melatonin promoted differential regulation of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), androgen receptor (AR) and melatonin receptor (MTR) along the reproductive tissues. In ovary, melatonin induced a down-regulation of ER-alpha and PRB levels. Conversely, it was observed that PRA and MT1R were up-regulated. In oviduct, AR and ER-alpha levels were down-regulated, in contrast to high expression of both PRA and PRB. Finally, the ER-beta and PRB levels were down-regulated in uterus tissue and only MT1R was up-regulated.
We suggest that melatonin partially suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis, in addition, it induces differential regulation of sex steroid receptors in the ovary, oviduct and uterus during ovulation.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 08/2011; 9:108. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is characterized by limited exercise tolerance, skeletal muscle atrophy, a shift toward fast muscle fiber, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) changes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also contribute to target organ damage in this syndrome. In this study, we investigated and compared morphofunctional characteristics and gene expression in Soleus (SOL--oxidative and slow twitching muscle) and in Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL--glycolytic and fast twitching muscle) during HF. Two groups of rats were used: control (CT) and heart failure (HF), induced by a single injection of monocrotaline. MyoD and myogenin gene expression were determined by RT-qPCR, and MHC isoforms by SDS-PAGE; muscle fiber type frequency and cross sectional area (CSA) were analyzed by mATPase. A biochemical study was performed to determine lipid hydroperoxide (LH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); myography was used to determine amplitude, rise time, fall time, and fatigue resistance in both muscles. HF showed SOL and EDL muscle atrophy in all muscle fiber types; fiber frequency decreased in type IIC and muscle contraction fall time increased only in SOL muscle. Myogenin mRNA expression was lower in SOL and myoD decreased in HF EDL muscle. LH increased, and SOD and GSH-Px activity decreased only in HF SOL muscle. HF EDL muscle did not present changes in MHC distribution, contractile properties, HL concentration, and antioxidant enzyme activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that monocrotaline induced HF promoted more prominent biochemical, morphological and functional changes in SOL (oxidative and slow twitching muscle). Although further experiments are required to better determine the mechanisms involved in HF pathophysiology, our results contribute to understanding the muscle-specific changes that occur in this syndrome.
Journal of molecular histology 06/2011; 42(3):205-15. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of growth hormone therapy on energy expenditure, lipid profile, oxidative stress and cardiac energy metabolism in aging and obesity conditions. Life expectancy is increasing in world population and with it, the incidence of public health problems such as obesity and cardiac alterations. Because growth hormone (GH) concentration is referred to be decreased in aging conditions, a question must be addressed: what is the effect of GH on aging related adverse changes? To investigate the effects of GH on cardiac energy metabolism and its association with calorimetric parameters, lipid profile and oxidative stress in aged and obese rats, initially 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (n=16), C: given standard-chow and water; H: given hypercaloric-chow and receiving 30% sucrose in its drinking water. After 45 days, both C and H groups were divided into 2 subgroups (n=8), C+PL: standard-chow, water, and receiving saline subcutaneously; C+GH: standard-chow, water, and receiving 2 mg/kg/day rhGH subcutaneously; H+PL: hypercaloric-chow, 30% sucrose, receiving saline subcutaneously; H+GH: hypercaloric-chow, 30% sucrose, receiving rhGH subcutaneously. After 30 days, C+GH and H+PL rats had higher body mass index, Lee-index, body fat content, percent-adiposity, serum triacylglycerol, cardiac lipid-hydroperoxide, and triacylglycerol than C+PL. Energy-expenditure (RMR)/body weight, oxygen consumption and fat-oxidation were higher in H+GH than in H+PL. LDL-cholesterol was highest in H+GH rats, whereas cardiac pyruvate-dehydrogenase and phosphofrutokinase were higher in H+GH and H+PL rats than in C+PL. In conclusion, the present study brought new insights on aging and obesity, demonstrating for the first time that GH therapy was harmful in aged and obesity conditions, impairing calorimetric parameters and lipid profile. GH was disadvantageous in control old rats, having undesirable effects on triacylglycerol accumulation and cardiac oxidative stress.
Hormone and Metabolic Research 03/2011; 43(6):397-403. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have assessed the direct effects of smoking on cardiac remodeling and function. However, the mechanisms of these alterations remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate de role of cardiac NADPH oxidase and antioxidant enzyme system on ventricular remodeling induced by tobacco smoke.
Male Wistar rats that weighed 200-230 g were divided into a control group (C) and an experimental group that was exposed to tobacco smoke for a period of two months (ETS). After the two-month exposure period, morphological, biochemical and functional analyses were performed.
The myocyte cross-sectional area and left ventricle end-diastolic dimension was increased 16.2% and 33.7%, respectively, in the ETS group. The interstitial collagen volume fraction was also higher in ETS group compared to the controls. In addition to these morphological changes, the ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in the ETS group. Importantly, these alterations were related to augmented heart oxidative stress, which was characterized by an increase in NADPH oxidase activity, increased levels of lipid hydroperoxide and depletion of antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase). In addition, cardiac levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 were not different between the groups.
Cardiac alterations that are induced by smoking are associated with increased NADPH oxidase activity, suggesting that this pathway plays a role in the ventricular remodeling induced by exposure to tobacco smoke.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2011; 27(3-4):305-12. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Food handlers, an important factor in food quality, may contain bacteria that are able to cause foodborne disease. The present study aimed to research coagulase-negative (CNS) and -positive staphylococci (CPS) in 82 food handlers, analyzing nasal and hand swabs, with identification of 62 CNS (75.6%) and 20 CPS strains (24.4%). Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes were investigated by PCR. In 20 CPS strains, 19 were positive for one or more genes. The percentage of CNS presenting genes for enterotoxins was high (46.8%). Despite of the staphylococcal species, the most common gene was sea (35.4%), followed by seh and sej (29.2%). The detection of new staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) genes showed a higher pathogenic potential in this genus. The presence of these gene points out the importance of CNS not only as contaminant bacteria but also as a pathogen.
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 01/2010; 41(1):59-65. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholism has been associated with a wide range of pathologic conditions, including alcoholic heart disease (AHD). Because AHD may be associated with oxidative stress, antioxidant compounds, such as N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could be useful to control the damage done by alcohol (ethanol) consumption. To investigate the NAC effects on alcoholism and alcohol abstinence, initially, 30 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (C, N=6) given standard chow and water; (E, N=24) receiving standard chow and aqueous ethanol solution in semi-voluntary research. After 30 days of ethanol-exposure, (E) group was divided into four subgroups (N=6/group):(E-E) continued drinking 30% ethanol-solution; (E-NAC) drinking ethanol-solution containing 2g/L NAC; (AB) changed ethanol solution to water; (AB-NAC) changed ethanol to aqueous solution of 2g/L NAC. After 15 days of the E-group division, E-E rats had lower body weight and feed efficiency, as well as higher energy-expenditure resting metabolic rate (RMR)/body weight and VO(2) consumption/surface area. These calorimetric changes were reflected on the cardiac tissue. E-E rats had higher heart weight/body weight ratio and myocardial lipid hydroperoxide (LH), indicating AHD with hypertrophy and oxidative stress. Myocardial superoxide dismutase was higher, whereas glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-peroxidase) was lower in E-E rats than in C. The higher myocardial hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase (OHADH), OHADH/citrate synthase (CS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)/CS in E-E rats indicated higher fatty acid degradation relative to aerobic metabolism predisposing the lipotoxicity. AB rats had lower RMR/body weight than E-E, normalized myocardial oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. E-NAC and AB-NAC had lower RMR/body weight, myocardial LH, LDH/CS, and higher GSH-peroxidase than E-E and AB, respectively, demonstrating lower oxidative stress and higher myocardial carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, the present study brought new insights on alcohol consumption and AHD because ethanol-exposure enhanced energy-expenditure and induced a number of calorimetric changes, which were reflected in body weight and myocardial lipotoxicity. NAC preventing ethanol-induced calorimetric changes and reducing myocardial oxidative stress enhanced carbohydrate oxidation, thus optimizing myocardial energy metabolism in both alcoholic and abstinence condition.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids may offer some protection against early-stage diabetes mellitus and its complications. Abnormalities in both glucose metabolism and lipid profile constitute one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of rutin, through biochemical parameters, on experimental streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: untreated controls (GI); normal rats receiving rutin (GII); untreated diabetics (GIII); diabetic rats receiving rutin (GIV). STZ was injected at a single dose of 60 mg kg(-1) to induce diabetes mellitus. The diabetes resulted in increased serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL-cholesterol) but decresed serum HDL-cholesterol and insulin. Rutin (50 mg kg(-1)) reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose and improved the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly augmented in serum of STZ-diabetic rats, while these activities were diminished in hepatic and cardiac tissues compared with the control group. Rutin prevents changes in the activities of ALT, AST and LDH in the serum, liver and heart, indicating the protective effect of rutin against the hepatic and cardiac toxicity caused by STZ. Rutin was associated with markedly decreased hepatic and cardiac levels of tryacylglycerols and elevated glycogen. These results suggest that rutin can improve hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia while inhibiting the progression of liver and heart dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats.