[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental and clinical studies have shown the direct toxic effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on the myocardium, independent of vascular effects. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well known.
Wistar rats were allocated to control (C) and cigarette smoke (CS) groups. CS rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for 2 months.
After that morphometric, functional and biochemical parameters were measured. The echocardiographic study showed enlargement of the left atria, increase in the left ventricular systolic volume and reduced systolic function. Within the cardiac metabolism, exposure to CS decreased beta hydroxy acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenases and citrate synthases and increased lactate dehydrogenases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) were expressed similarly in both groups. CS increased serum lipids and myocardial triacylglycerols (TGs). These data suggest that impairment in fatty acid oxidation and the accumulation of cardiac lipids characterize lipotoxicity. CS group exhibited increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defense. Finally, the myocyte cross-sectional area and active Caspase 3 were increased in the CS group.
The cardiac remodeling that was observed in the CS exposure model may be explained by abnormalities in energy metabolism, including lipotoxicity and oxidative stress.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113739. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Heart failure (HF) is associated with cachexia and consequent exercise intolerance. Given the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training (ET) in HF, the aim of this study was to determine if the ET performed during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF would alter the expression of anabolic and catabolic factors, thus preventing skeletal muscle wasting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (RSV), polyphenol from grape, was studied to evaluate its effects on calorimetric parameters, energy metabolism, and antioxidants in the myocardium of diabetic rats. The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8): C (control group): normal rats; C-RSV: normal rats receiving RSV; DM: diabetic rats; and DM-RSV: diabetics rats receiving RSV. Type 1 diabetes mellitus was induced with administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg-1 body weight, single dose, i.p.). After 48 hours of STZ administration, the animals received RSV (1.0 mg/kg/day) for gavage for 30 days. Food, water, and energy intake were higher in the DM group, while administration of RSV caused decreases (p<0.05) in these parameters. The glycemia decreased and higher final body weight increased in DM-RSV when compared with the DM group. The diabetic rats showed higher serum-free fatty acid, which was normalized with RSV. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) decreased (p<0.05) in the DM group. This was accompanied by reductions in RQ. The C-RSV group showed higher VO2 and VCO2 values. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was lower in the DM group and normalizes with RSV. The DM group exhibited higher myocardial β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity, and RSV decreased the activity of these enzymes. The DM group had higher cardiac lactate dehydrogenase compared to the DM-RSV group. Myocardial protein carbonyl was increased in the DM group. RSV increased reduced glutathione in the cardiac tissue of diabetic animals. The glutathione reductase activity was higher in the DM-RSV group compared to the DM group. In conclusion, diabetes is accompanied by cardiac energy metabolism dysfunction and change in the biomarkers of oxidative stress. The cardioprotective effect may be mediated through RVS's ability to normalize free fatty acid oxidation, enhance utilization glucose, and control the biomarkers' level of oxidative stress under diabetic conditions.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102775. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.
Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics 06/2014; 51(3):215-22. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenoenzymes can modulate the extent of oxidative stress, which is recognized as a key feature of septic shock. The pathophysiologic role of erythrocyte selenium concentration in patients with septic shock remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association of erythrocyte selenium concentration with glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) activity, GPx1 polymorphisms and with ICU and hospital mortality in septic shock patients.
Critical care (London, England) 05/2014; 18(3):R92. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of the inhalation of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol on Wistar rats were evaluated for biochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 was control group, treated with saline solution; G2 received geraniol; and G3 received C. martinii EO by inhalation during 30 days. No significant differences were observed in glycemia and triacylglycerol levels; G2 and G3 decreased (P < 0.05) total cholesterol level. There were no differences in serum protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total hepatic protein. Creatinine levels increased in G2 but decreased in G3. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lipid hydroperoxide were higher in G2 than in G3. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in G3. C. martinii EO and geraniol increased glutathione peroxidase. Oxidative stress caused by geraniol may have triggered some degree of hepatic toxicity, as verified by the increase in serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of EO on oxidative stress can prevent the toxicity in the liver. This proves possible interactions between geraniol and numerous chemical compounds present in C. martinii EO.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of systemic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) induces greater cardiac remodeling than either condition alone. However, this association has been poorly addressed in senescent rats. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the influence of streptozotocin-induced DM on ventricular remodeling and oxidative stress in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
Fifty 18 month old male SHR were divided into two groups: control (SHR, n = 25) and diabetic (SHR-DM, n = 25). DM was induced by streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, i.p.). After nine weeks, the rats underwent echocardiography and myocardial functional study in left ventricular (LV) isolated papillary muscle preparations. LV samples were obtained to measure myocyte diameters, interstitial collagen fraction, and hydroxyproline concentration. Gene expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms was evaluated by RT-PCR. Serum oxidative stress was assessed by measuring lipid hydroperoxide concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Statistics: Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05.
SHR-DM presented higher blood glucose (487 +/- 29 vs. 89.1 +/- 21.1 mg/dL) and lower body weight (277 +/- 26 vs. 339 +/- 38 g). Systolic blood pressure did not differ between groups. Echocardiography showed LV and left atrial dilation, LV diastolic and relative wall thickness decrease, and LV systolic and diastolic function impairment in SHR-DM. Papillary muscle study showed decreased myocardial contractility and contractile reserve in SHR-DM. Myocyte diameters and myocardial interstitial collagen fraction and hydroxyproline concentration did not differ between groups. Increased serum pro-oxidant activity and gene expression of ANP and beta/alpha-MyHC ratio were observed in DM.
Diabetes mellitus induces cardiac dilation and functional impairment, increases oxidative stress and activates fetal gene program in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius)(Poepp.& Endl.) on clinical parameters under diabetic conditions. The aqueous extract of yacon tuberous roots (YRAE; 0.76g fructan kg(-1) body weight) was prepared at the moment of each administration. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8): control group (C); group that received YRAE (Y); untreated diabetic group (DM1); and diabetic group treated with YRAE (Y-DM1). The diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (60mg kg-1 body weight). The animals from Y2 and Y-DM1 received YRAE by gavage, at 7-day intervals, for 30 days. The aqueous extract of yacon roots decreased (p<0.05) the water and food intake in diabetic rats treated with YRAE (Y-DM1). YRAE treatment reduced (p<0.05) glycaemia, total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL and triacylglycerol levels in diabetic rats (YRAE). HDL, urea and creatinine levels did not differ (p>0.05) between the Y and Y-DM1 groups. YRAE normalised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, when comparing DM1 and Y-DM1 rats, but had no effect on lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH). In conclusion, YRAE was sufficient for controlling water and food consumption, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia, and promote the reduction of the ALT, suggesting a hepatoprotective effect in rats with STZ-induced DM1.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: -This study was aimed to evaluate the influence of vitamin D (VD) deficiency on cardiac metabolism, morphology and function. Thus, we investigated the relationship of these changes with the length of the nutrient restriction. METHODS AND RESULTS: -Male weanling Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: C2(n=24), animals were fed an AIN-93G diet with 1,000 IU VD/kg of chow and were kept under fluorescent light for 2 months; D2(n=22), animals were fed a VD - deficient AIN-93G diet and were kept under incandescent light for 2 months; C4(n=21) animals were kept in the same conditions of C2 for 4 months; D4(n=23) animals were kept in the same conditions of D2 for 4 months. Biochemical analyses showed lower beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase activity and higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in VD deficient animals. Furthermore, VD deficiency was related to increased cytokines release, oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis. Echocardiographic data showed left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and lower fractional shortening and ejection fraction in VD deficient animals. Difference became evident in the LDH activity, LV weight, right ventricle weight, and LV mass after 4 months of VD deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: -Our data indicate that VD deficiency is associated to energetic metabolic changes, cardiac inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis and apoptosis, cardiac hypertrophy, left chambers alterations and systolic dysfunction. Furthermore, length of the restriction influenced these cardiac changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the numerous coadjuvant therapies that could influence the incidence and progression of diabetic complications, antioxidants and flavonoids are currently being tested in clinical trials. We investigated the effect of quercetin on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced (60 mg/kg body mass, by intraperitoneal injection) diabetic rats. A total of 32 female Wistar rats were distributed among 4 groups as follows: control (G1); control treated with quercetin (G2); diabetic (G3); and diabetic treated with quercetin (G4). Quercetin administered to pregnant diabetic rats controlled dyslipidemia and improved lipid profiles in diabetes mellitus, regulated oxidative stress by reducing the generation of lipid hydroperoxides, and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2013; 91(2):171-7. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
Determine the influence of serum thiamine, GPx activity and serum protein carbonyl concentrations in hospital mortality in patients with septic shock.
Materials and Methods
This prospective study included all patients with septic shock on admission or during ICU stay, over the age of 18, admitted to one of the 3 Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of the Botucatu Medical School, from January to August 2012. Demographic information, clinical evaluation and blood sample were taken within the first 72 hours of the patient’s admission or within 72 hours after septic shock diagnosis for serum thiamine, GPx activity and protein carbonyl determination.
One hundred and eight consecutive patients were evaluated. The mean age was 57.5 ± 16.0 years, 63% were male, 54.6% died in ICU and 71.3% had thiamine deficiency. Thiamine was not associated with oxidative stress. Neither vitamin B1 levels nor the GPx activity were associated with outcomes in these patients. However, protein carbonyl concentration was associated with increased mortality.
In patients with septic shock, oxidative stress was associated with mortality. On the other hand, thiamine was not associated with oxidative stress or mortality in these patients.
Journal of critical care 01/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine (20mg/L) intake on cadmium (15mg/L) accumulation in the rat blood, testes, epididymis and prostate as well as cadmium-induced changes to the antioxidant defense system of the epididymis. Caffeine reduced the cadmium concentration in all tissues analyzed. Meanwhile, cadmium reduced catalase activity and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the epididymis. Caffeine increased SOD activity, catalase and glutathione tissue expression and sustains the cadmium's effect on catalase and GSP-Px activity. No differences in the expression of metallothionein and lipid peroxidation were observed among the different treatments in the epididymis. In conclusion, low doses of cadmium alter the antioxidant enzymatic profile of the epididymis, but not induced oxidative lipid damage. Caffeine intake reduces overall cadmium accumulation in the organism and enhances the levels of antioxidant protein expression in the epididymis, thus exerting a protective effect against this metal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of supplementation of vitamin E on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats by measuring blood glucose, changes in body weight, food and water intake, lipid profile, serum urea and creatinine level, and antioxidant enzyme activity. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control rats (GI); rats receiving vitamin E (GII); STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIII) and STZ-induced diabetic rats treated with vitamin E (GIV). Vitamin E reduced (p<0.05) blood glucose and urea, improved the lipid profile (decreased the serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols, and increased HDL cholesterol) and increased total protein in STZ-induced diabetic rats (GIV). Vitamin prevented changes in the activity of SOD and GSH-Px and in the concentration of lipid hydroperoxide. These results suggested that vitamin E improved hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 08/2012; 55(4):527-536. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy.
Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g) were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C) or taurine-deficient (T (-)). Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (-) group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart.
Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (-) rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals.
These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e41439. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported the effects of quercetin on metabolic and hormonal profile as well as serum antioxidant activities in a model of MSG (monosodium glutamate)-induced obesity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: MSG group, submitted to neonatal treatment with high doses of MSG, administrated subcutaneously during 10days, from 2day-old; control groups, which received the same volume of saline. After completing 30day-old, these groups were subdivided into 4 groups: control and MSG groups treated and non-treated with quercetin at doses of 75mg/kg body weight (i.p.) over 42days. BW gain and food consumption were higher in MSG treated rats and quercetin significantly reduced BW by 25%. While MSG increased triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and fractions, and reduced HDL concentrations, administration of quercetin normalized HDL-cholesterol and reduced others lipids. Insulin, leptin, glucose and creatinine levels were raised in MSG-treated rats and reduced after quercetin treatment. Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were lower after MSG-quercetin combination compared to rats given only MSG. MSG-quercetin combination augmented total protein and urea levels as well as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in contrast to MSG-treated animals. Quercetin normalized serum lipid and glucose profile and minimized the MSG-related toxic effects, which was associated to its antioxidant properties.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2012; 50(10):3556-61. · 2.99 Impact Factor