Aizhen Jin

University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (9)37.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, the relationship between physical activity and risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is not clear.Methods We analyzed data on a prospective cohort of 59,552 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Information on physical activity was collected with a structured questionnaire. Physically active individuals were defined as those who engaged in any moderate activities for 2 hours or more per week, and any strenuous activities 30 minutes or more per week. Incident ESKD was identified via record linkage with the Singapore Registry of Birth and Death and Singapore Renal Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression method was used for analysis for risk of incident ESKD alone or ESKD plus death associated with physical activity. Multivariable models were used to account for the potential confounding effect of sociodemographic, life style factors, and known co-morbidites on the physical activity-ESKD risk association.ResultsDuring a median follow-up of 15.3 years, a total of 642 incident ESKD occurred, and 9808 study participants died. A 24% lower adjusted risk of ESKD [hazard ratio (HR): 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62-0.93] was associated with moderate or strenuous physical activities compared to no regular physical activity. This association appeared to be dose dependent with the lowest risk for subjects at highest intensity of physical activity (p trend <0.003). Similar results were observed for risk of ESKD plus death.Conclusions Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower risk of ESKD. Our findings highlight the role of physical activity for prevention of ESKD, which deserves further evaluation in intervention trials.
    Nephrology 10/2014; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite experimental evidence showing chemopreventive effects of coffee-related compounds on gastric carcinogenesis, epidemiologic studies generally do not support coffee-gastric cancer associations. Observational data are lacking among high-risk populations with sufficient regular coffee consumption. Methods: We examined the association between caffeinated coffee intake and gastric cancer risk in a population-based cohort that enrolled 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45-74 years between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Incident gastric cancer cases (n=647) were identified after a mean follow-up of 14.7 years. Biomarkers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection were measured in a subset of gastric cancer cases with blood collected prior to cancer diagnosis and their matched controls. Results: In the total cohort, daily versus non-daily coffee intake was associated with a statistically non-significant decrease in gastric cancer risk [hazards ratio (HR) = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.04). In women, the inverse association strengthened and reached statistical significance (HR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87). In analyses restricted to never smokers and nondrinkers of alcohol, inverse associations strengthened in the total cohort (HR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.91) and in women (HR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74). There was no coffee-gastric cancer risk association among men, regardless of smoking status or alcohol consumption. Similar results were observed in the nested case-control study after adjustment for H. pylori infection. Conclusions: Daily coffee consumption may reduce the risk of gastric cancer in high-risk populations, especially among women. Impact: Research aimed at identifying the compounds in coffee that may protect against gastric carcinogenesis is warranted.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 03/2014; · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Asian women have different estrogen levels from Western women, and this could affect estrogen receptor bioactivity and breast cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study of 169 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 426 matched controls nested within a population-based prospective cohort, The Singapore Chinese Health Study, to evaluate serum levels of estrogens and their receptor (ER)-mediated estrogenic activity in relation to breast cancer risk. Breast cancer cases had higher levels of estrogens and estrogen receptor bioactivities in baseline serum than controls. Compared to the lowest quartile, women in the highest quartile for estrone or ERα-mediated bioactivity had increased breast cancer risk. After additional adjustment for serum levels of ERβ-mediated estrogenic activity, free E2 and estrone, increased serum ERα-mediated estrogenic activity remained associated with increased risk. Compared to the lowest quartile, women in the highest quartile for ERα-mediated bioactivity had an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% confidence interval=1.17-4.88, p for trend=0.016). Conversely, the positive association between estrone and cancer risk became null after adjustment for ERα-mediated estrogenic activity, suggesting that the effect of estrone could be mediated through ERα. Identification of the factor(s) contributing to increased ERα-mediated estrogenic bioactivity in sera, and its role as a predictor for breast cancer risk needs to be validated in future studies.
    Endocrine Related Cancer 12/2013; · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:The increasing prevalence of diabetes may contribute to the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the US and other developed countries where HCC incidence is relatively low. Data from prospective studies on diabetes and risk of HCC in at-risk populations due to high prevalence of viral hepatitis in southeast Asia are sparse.Methods:The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a prospective cohort of 63 257 middle-aged and older Chinese men and women enrolled in 1993-1998. Besides an in-person interview administered to all participants at baseline, testing of serologic markers of hepatitis B or C infections were performed on a subset of cohort subjects. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 499 cohort participants developed HCC.Results:A history of diabetes at baseline was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.69-2.71). This statistically significant association was comparable in magnitude between men and women, and remained equally strong across strata of subjects defined by the number of years between their first clinical diagnosis of diabetes and time of enrolment in this cohort. Within a nested case-control set of cohort subjects tested for serological markers of hepatitis B or C infections, the diabetes-HCC association was found to be present mainly among those devoid of any markers.Conclusion:A history of diabetes at baseline is highly associated with non-viral HCC. Future studies are warranted to elucidate the biological mechanism underpinning the role of diabetes in nonviral-related hepatocarcinogenesis.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 31 January 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.25 www.bjcancer.com.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between smoking and risk of kidney failure, especially in people of Chinese origin, is not clear. We analyzed data from the Singapore Chinese Health Study to investigate whether smoking increases the risk of kidney failure. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults enrolled between 1993 and 1998. Information on smoking status was collected at baseline. Incidence of kidney failure was identified via record linkage with the nationwide Singapore Renal Registry until 2008. Kidney failure was defined by one of the following: 1) serum creatinine level of more than or equal to 500 µmol/l (5.7 mg/dl), 2) estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 3) undergoing hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, 4) undergone kidney transplantation. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for the outcome of kidney failure after adjusting for age, education, dialect, herbal medications, body mass index, sex, physician-diagnosed hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The mean age of subjects was 55.6 years at baseline, and 44% were men. Overall 30.6% were ever smokers (current or former) at baseline. A total of 674 incident cases of kidney failure occurred during a median follow-up of 13.3 years. Among men, smokers had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of kidney failure [hazard ratio (HR): 1.29; 95% CI: 1.02-1.64] compared to never smokers. There was a strong dose-dependent association between number of years of smoking and kidney failure, (p for trend = 0.011). The risk decreased with prolonged cessation (quitting ≥10 years since baseline). The number of women smokers was too few for conclusive relationship. Information on baseline kidney function was not available. Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of kidney failure among Chinese men. The risk appears to be dose- and duration-dependent and modifiable after long duration of cessation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e62962. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Screening for peripheral arterial disease, a complication among patients with diabetes, is performed by periodic assessment of ankle-brachial index. We aimed to study the degree of ankle-brachial index change over time and factors associated with significant change. We assessed difference between two ankle-brachial index measurements over time in a consecutive series of 82 patients with Type 2 diabetes. All patients had ankle-brachial index > 0.9 but ≤ 1.3 for the first measurement, and significant ankle-brachial index decrease was defined as a decrease of > 0.1 in the follow-up measurement compared with the baseline. The mean follow-up duration was 27.6 (median 30.0) months. Significant ankle-brachial index decrease was seen in 20.7% of patients, including 5% with follow-up ankle-brachial index of ≤ 0.9, consistent with the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. After adjusting for age and gender, higher baseline HbA(1c) and serum creatinine levels, increase in follow-up serum LDL cholesterol levels compared with baseline and history of retinopathy were predictors of significant ankle-brachial index decrease. Our study suggests that, within two years, one in five patients with diabetes and a normal ankle-brachial index may have significant progression of peripheral arterial disease. Annual ankle-brachial index assessment and better control of hyperlipidaemia may thus be required for at-risk patients with poor glycaemic control, renal impairment and retinopathy.
    Diabetic Medicine 05/2012; 29(9):e304-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is paucity of data from Asian women on the association between serum estrogens and osteoporotic hip fracture risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within a population-based prospective cohort, The Singapore Chinese Health Study, to evaluate serum estrogens levels, ERα-mediated estrogenic activity and hip fracture risk in postmenopausal Asian women. Among 35,298 women who were recruited between 1993 and 1998, 15,410 women donated blood for research between 1999 and 2004. From this subcohort, we identified 140 cases who subsequently suffered hip fracture after blood donation, and 278 age-matched controls. Serum levels of total estrone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin levels were measured in a blinded fashion among cases and controls. ERα-mediated estrogenic activity of serum samples was quantified using a sensitive ERα-driven cell bioassay. Women with hip fracture had lower serum estrogens than control women. Compared to the lowest quintile, women in the highest quintile of free estradiol exhibited a statistically significant 57% reduction in risk of hip fracture (95% confidence interval (CI), 6-80%), with a dose-dependent relationship (p for trend=0.021). High levels of ERα-mediated estrogenic activity were also associated with decreased risk of hip fracture (p for trend=0.048). Overall, women with relatively high levels of both free estradiol and ERα-mediated estrogenic activity had a 55% reduction in hip fracture risk (95% CI, 17-76%) compared to women with low levels of both. High levels of free estradiol and ERα-mediated estrogen activity in sera were associated with reduced hip fracture risk in Chinese postmenopausal women.
    Bone 03/2012; 50(6):1311-6. · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Putative colorectal procarcinogens in tobacco smoke include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines that are known substrates of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This study examined the influence of functional GST gene polymorphisms on the smoking-colorectal cancer association in a population known to be minimally exposed to dietary sources of these procarcinogens. Incident cases of colorectal cancer (n = 480) and matched controls (n = 1167) were selected from the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based prospective cohort of 63 257 men and women who have been followed since 1993. We determined the deletion polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and the functional polymorphism at codon 105 of GSTP1 for each subject. A three level composite GST index was used to examine if GST profile affected a smoker's risk of developing colorectal cancer. While there was no statistically significant association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer risk among subjects absent of any at-risk GST genotypes, smokers possessing two to three at-risk GST genotypes exhibited a statistically significant increased risk of colorectal cancer compared with non-smokers (P = 0.0002). In this latter stratum, heavy smokers exhibited a >5-fold increased risk relative to never-smokers (odds ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 2.22-13.23). Subjects with one at-risk GST genotype displayed a statistically significant but weaker association with smoking. These findings suggest that GST gene polymorphisms influence interindividual susceptibility to smoking-associated colorectal cancer. Our data indicate an important role for GST enzymes in the detoxification of colorectal carcinogens in tobacco smoke.
    Carcinogenesis 07/2011; 32(10):1507-11. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MDM2 oncoprotein regulates the p53 pathway and, while functional polymorphisms of the MDM2 and p53 genes have been investigated for association with breast cancer risk, results are largely null or non-conclusive. We have earlier reported that the increased intake of soy isoflavones reduces risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and experimental studies suggest that dietary isoflavones can down-regulate the expression of the MDM2 oncoprotein. In this study, we investigated the association between the MDM2 SNP309 and TP53 R72P polymorphisms and breast cancer risk using a case-control study of 403 cases and 662 controls nested among 35,303 women in The Singapore Chinese Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort of middle-aged and elderly men and women who have been continuously followed since 1993. The G allele of the TP53 R72P polymorphism and T allele of the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism were putative high-risk alleles and exhibited a combined gene-dose-dependent joint effect on breast cancer risk that was more clearly observed in postmenopausal women. Among postmenopausal women, the simultaneous presence of G allele in TP53 and T allele in MDM2 polymorphisms was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-5.50]. Furthermore, the protective effect of dietary soy isoflavones on postmenopausal breast cancer was mainly confined to women homozygous for the high activity MDM2 allele (GG genotype). In this genetic subgroup, women consuming levels of soy isoflavones above the median level exhibited risk that was half of those with below median intake (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.28-0.99). Our findings support experimental data implicating combined effects of MDM2 protein and the p53-mediated pathway in breast carcinogenesis, and suggest that soy isoflavones may exert protective effect via down-regulation of the MDM2 protein.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2011; 130(3):1011-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor