Publications (2)3.65 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Shake flasks are widely used in biotechnological process research. Bioprocesses for which hydromechanical stress may become the rate controlling parameter include those where oils are applied as carbon sources, biotransformation of compounds with low solubility in the aqueous phase, or processes employing animal, plant, or filamentous microorganisms. In this study, the maximum local energy dissipation rate as the measure for hydromechanical stress is characterized in shake flasks by measuring the maximum stable drop size. The theoretical basis for the method is that the maximum stable drop diameter in a coalescence inhibited liquid/liquid dispersion is only a function of the maximum local energy dissipation rate and not of the dispersing apparatus. The maximum local energy dissipation rate is obtained by comparing the drop diameters in shake flasks to those in a stirred tank reactor. At the same volumetric power consumption, the maximum energy dissipation rate in shake flasks is about 10 times lower than in stirred tank reactors explaining the common observation of considerable differences in the morphology of hydromechanically sensitive cells between these two reactor types. At the same volumetric power consumption, the maximum local energy dissipation rate in baffled and in unbaffled shake flasks is very similar. A correlation is presented to quantify the maximum local energy dissipation rate in shake flasks as a function of the operating conditions. Non-negligible drop viscosity may be considered by known literature correlations. Further, from dispersion experiments a critical Reynolds number of about 60,000 is proposed for turbulent flow in unbaffled shake flasks.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 04/2006; 93(6):1164-76. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For the cultivation of microorganisms, baffled shake flasks are employed when increased levels of oxygenation and mixing are required. Their use has been discouraged, however, due to the danger of a wetted sterile plug and the lower reproducibility of the experimental results. Consequently, there are only few studies dealing with this type of shaken bioreactor, and there is practically no characterization of this reactor type from a chemical engineering viewpoint. Therefore, a systematic study to elaborate the basic characteristics of the volumetric power consumption and the unfavorable out-of-phase phenomenon in baffled shake flasks is undertaken. A new type of measuring device was developed to measure the volumetric power consumption in a single shake flask. The volumetric power consumption was found to increase with increasing shaking frequency and with decreasing filling volume. Further, an independency of power consumption on the shaking diameter was observed as long as the fluid motion is in-phase. A comparison of two different baffle geometries demonstrated that deeper baffles cause more resistance to fluid flow. For the commonly employed shaking diameter of 25mm, the investigated baffled flask types may not be operated in the in-phase state. A larger shaking diameter must therefore be employed. It was found for the first time that for all in-phase conditions, the dimensionless Newton number Ne′ is independent of the Reynolds number Re. Power consumption in baffled shake flasks may therefore be described by a characteristic Ne′ only dependent on the filling volume VL and the flask type. Even though there are quantitative differences, a qualitative similarity between fluid flow in stirred tanks and shake flasks has been demonstrated.Chemical Engineering Science - CHEM ENG SCI. 01/2006; 61(11):3771-3779.