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Publications (2)3.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor linagliptin when administered with and without food, in accordance with regulatory requirements to support dosing recommendations for patients. This was a randomized, open-label, crossover study involving 32 healthy white male and female subjects. All subjects received a single dose of 5 mg linagliptin after an overnight fast of at least 10 hours, or immediately after ingestion of a high-fat, high-calorie breakfast. These treatments were separated by a period of 5 weeks. Plasma samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected before dosing and at prespecified time points after dosing. The concentration of linagliptin in these samples was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Relative bioavailability was assessed by the total area under the curve between 0 and 72 hours (AUC(0-72)) and maximum measured plasma concentration (C(max)) of linagliptin. Tolerability was also assessed. In 32 subjects (mean age, 34.8 years; weight, 74.3 kg; male, 53%; white race, 100%), intake of a high-fat meal resulted in comparable bioavailability with regard to AUC(0-72) (geometric mean ratio [GMR] between the fed and fasted group means was 103.5%; 90% CI, 98.1%-109.2%). Individuals' responses to food ranged from a maximum increase in exposure of 38% to a decrease of 32% relative to the fasted state. The concurrent intake of food increased the time to reach maximum plasma concentration (T(max)) by approximately 2 hours and reduced C(max) by about 15% (GMR 84.7%; 90% CI, 75.9%-94.6%). Since adequate drug exposure for inhibition of DPP-4 was still given for the entire 24-hour dosing interval, this result was considered to be of no clinical relevance. Linagliptin was well tolerated during the study. Intake of a high-fat meal reduced the rate of linagliptin absorption but had no influence on the extent of absorption; this finding suggests that food has no relevant influence on the efficacy of linagliptin.
    Clinical Therapeutics 08/2011; 33(8):1096-103. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Linagliptin is an oral dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitor that has been recently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Microgynon® 30 is a combined oral contraceptive pill containing both ethinylestradiol 30 μg and levonorgestrel 150 μg (EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of multiple doses of linagliptin (5 mg once daily) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of EE and LNG following once-daily doses of EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg. This was an open-label, two-period, fixed-sequence, multiple-dose study, consisting of a run-in period, a 14-day reference treatment period and a 7-day test treatment period. The study recruited 18 healthy pre-menopausal female subjects aged 18-40 years with a body mass index of 18.5-27.0 kg/m2. Only women with regular menstrual cycles were included in this study. The treatment sequence was divided into three steps: an individually tailored run-in period with EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg to synchronize the menstrual cycles of the subjects followed by a washout period of 7 days; the reference treatment period, during which EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg alone was taken on days 1-14; and the test treatment period, during which EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg plus linagliptin were taken on days 15-21. The pharmacokinetic parameters measured were maximum steady-state plasma concentration during a dosage interval (C(max,ss)), time to reach maximum plasma concentration following administration at steady state (t(max,ss)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve during a dosage interval (τ) at steady state (AUC(τ,ss)). The AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) of EE and LNG were comparable when EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg was given alone or combined with linagliptin. The adjusted geometric mean ratios for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) of EE following EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg plus linagliptin versus EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg alone were 101.4 (90% CI 97.2, 105.8) and 107.8 (90% CI 99.7, 116.6), respectively. The adjusted geometric mean ratios for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) of LNG following EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg plus linagliptin versus EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg alone were 108.8 (90% CI 104.5, 113.3) and 113.5 (90% CI 106.1, 121.3), respectively. The combination was well tolerated. Linagliptin had no clinically relevant effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of EE and LNG in healthy female subjects, and the combination of EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg and linagliptin was well tolerated in this study. Therefore, linagliptin has the potential to be used in the treatment of female patients with type 2 diabetes in combination with oral contraceptives containing these components, such as EE 30 μg/LNG 150 μg. The EudraCT number for this study is 2008-000953-37.
    Clinical Drug Investigation 06/2011; 31(9):643-53. · 1.70 Impact Factor